Koumine shows potent anti-tumor, anxiolytic, antistress, antipsoriatic, and analgesic activities, it also protects against the development of arthritis in Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) animal models.Koumine can induce apoptosis of LoVo cells in a time-dependent manner and inhibit the DNA synthesis in LoVo cells, thereby blocking the cell cycle from G1 to S phase.
Cannabidiol has a potent anti-arthritic effect in collagen-induced arthritis through its combined immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory actions, it has a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical antipsychotic drugs. Cannabidiol exerts a combination of neuroprotective, anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects against beta-amyloid peptide toxicity, and that inhibition of caspase 3 appearance from its inactive precursor, pro-caspase 3, by cannabidiol is involved in the signalling pathway for this neuroprotection. Cannabidiol may have great therapeutic potential in the treatment of diabetic complications, and perhaps other cardiovascular disorders, by attenuating oxidative/ nitrative stress, inflammation, cell death and fibrosis.
(+)-Taxifolin is an inhibitor of aggregation of the 42-residue amyloid β-protein, it has preventive effects against Alzheimer's disease-like pathogenesis in vivo. It is also a weak inhibitor of cytochrome b5 reduction (IC50=9.8μM).
Hispidulin has anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antiepileptic, neuroprotective, anti-osteoporotic and bone resorption attenuating effects, it targets the VEGF receptor 2-mediated PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in endothelial cells, leading to the suppression of pancreatic tumor growth and angiogenesis. Hispidulin can ameliorate high glucose-mediated endothelial dysfunction via inhibiting PKCβII-associated NLRP3 inflammasome activation and NF-κB signaling, it has potential application in the prevention and treatment of diabetic vascular complications. Hispidulin can inhibit platelet aggregation by elevating cAMP levels by a mechanism different from that of theophylline or PGE1.
Licarin B can improve insulin sensitivity via PPARγ and activation of GLUT4 in the IRS-1/PI3K/AKT pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, it as a promising bioactive for insulin resistance and associated complications through its partial PPARγ activity.