1. Dammarenediol II synthase is a key rate-limiting enzyme during the process of rice synthesizes dammarane-type ginsenosides.
2. Dammarenediol II can inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and stress fiber formation and vascular endothelial-cadherin disruption, suggests that the natural drug dammarenediol II may have the ability to prevent diabetic microvascular complications, including diabetic retinopathy.
3. The medicinally important dammarenediol II can be ectopically produced in tobacco, and the production of dammarenediol-II in tobacco plants allows them to adopt a viral defense system.
Byakangelicin is found in extracts of the root of Angelica dahurica, used in Korea and China as a traditional medicine to treat colds, headache and toothache, it can inhibit the effects of sex hormones, it may increase the catabolism of endogenous hormones, it induces cytochrome P450 3A4 expression via transactivation of pregnane X receptors in human hepatocytes. Byakangelicin is effective for the treatment of sugar cataracts and diabetic neuropathy in rats. Byakangelicin could as insecticides and insect antifeedant for the control of Lepidoptera and Homoptera showed a significant effect.
Conduritol A has a hypoglycemic effect, can have an effect on regulating the metabolism of blood lipid, free-radical scavenging, enhancing the antioxidant ability, potentiating immune function; it also can markedly prevent the diabetic rats from getting cataracts through the inhibition of lens aldose reductase.
Troxerutin protects against high cholesterol-induced cognitive deficits in mice, it could be recommended as a possible candidate for the prevention and therapy of cognitive deficits in type 2 diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease. Troxerutin can attenuate renal injury induced by D-galactose probably through its antioxidant and anti-inflammation properties, it also has efficacy on streptozotocin-induced rat model in the early stage of diabetic retinopathy.