1. 6'-O-caffeoylarbutin may serve as a skin-whitening ingredient with the merits of potent melanin inhibition,less toxicity and reversible melanin synthesis after stopping use.
Salidroside is a prolyl endopeptidase inhibitor, which has cardioprotective, antidiabetic,antidepressant, anxiolytic, anti-tumor, and antioxidant actions. Salidroside alleviates cachexia symptoms in mouse models of cancer cachexia via activating mTOR signalling. It alleviates the pulmonary symptoms of paraquat-induced acute lung injury, at least partially, by repressing inflammatory cell infiltration and the expression of TGF-β1 resulting in delayed lung fibrosis; and it has protective effect against hypoxia-induced cardiomyocytes necrosis and apoptosis by increasing HIF-1α expression and subsequently up-regulating VEGF levels. It may be a potential therapeutic agent for treating or preventing neurodegenerative diseases implicated with oxidative stress.
Rosavin possesses anti-fatigue, antidepressant and anxiolytic activities, it decreased neovascular reaction on cutaneous angiogenesis induced in mice after grafting of syngeneic tumor cells.
20(R)-Ginsenoside Rg3 has anticarcinogenic, neuroprotective, anti-aging and antifatigue activities, it has a wide spectrum of targets including caspase-3, MMP-2, MMP-9,HIF-1α,VEGF,IL-1,IL-6 and TNF-α.
Agomelatine is a competitive antagonist of human and porcine serotonin (5-HT2C) receptors (pKi = 6.2 and 6.4, respectively) as well as human 5-HT2B receptors (pKi = 6.6). Agomelatine is a melatonin (MT) analogue with agonistic properties and has been proven to be effective for various types of depressive symptoms, agomelatine also has anticonvulsant activity. Agomelatine treatment could represent a novel useful approach to the clinical care of subjects with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). Agomelatine administration protects liver cells from paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity via antioxidant activity and reduced proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6.