1. Glabridin may serve as an anti-inflammatory agent in diabetes-related vascular dysfunction,through regulating the synthesis and activity of iNOS under high-glucose levels; may possess a therapeutic effect on metabolic disorders( such as diabetes and hyperglycemia), by modulating glucose metabolism through AMPK in skeletal muscle cells.
2. Glabridin may have potential as a chemopreventive agent against liver cancer metastasis, by inhibiting the invasion of human HCC cells.
1. Catalpalactone inhibited dopamine biosynthesis by reducing TH and AADC activities and enhanced L-DOPA-induced cytotoxiciy in PC12 cells.
(1) Catalpalactone at 5-30μM decreased intracellular dopamine content with the IC(50) value of 22.1μM;at 5-20μM, did not alter cell viability.
(2) Catalpalactone at 20μM inhibited tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and aromatic-l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) activities, decreased cyclic AMP levels and inhibited TH phosphorylation, educed the increases in dopamine levels induced by L-DOPA (20-50μM).
(3) Catalpalactone (5-30μM) associated with L-DOPA (50-100μM) enhanced L-DOPA-induced cytotoxicity at 48h, which was prevented by N-acetyl-l-cysteine.
1. Ginsenosides Rg3 suppressed swelling of oxazolone-induced mouse ear contact dermatitis.
2. Ginsenosides Rg3 induced differentiation of HL-60 cells into granulocytes and modulation of PKC isoform levels.
3. Ginsenosides Rg3 inhibited LPS-induced iNOS and cytokine expressions.
4. Ginsenosides Rg3 is a potential therapeutic modality for neurodegenerative diseases by inhibiting microglial activation.
1. Hirsutanonol shows antibiotic activity.
2. Hirsutanonol inhibits nitric oxide synthase.
1. Fingolimod hydrochloride is an oral sphingosine-1-phosphate analogue that was approved by the FDA in 2010 for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS)， fingolimod hydrochloride is generally well tolerated but requires diligence in patient selection and monitoring. Additional information is needed regarding risk of infection, malignancy and rebound disease with long-term use of fingolimod.
2. The gels containing 0.50% fingolimod hydrochloride (FNGL) and FNGL 0.50% plus 6% colloidal oatmeal have potential for the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD), the presence of colloidal oatmeal may provide additional benefits.
3. Fingolimod hydrochloride can suppress inflammatory reaction of injured blood vessels and lessen the stenosis of injured blood vessels by regulating cyclooxygenase 2 and prostaglandin E2 mRNA expression using sphingosine1-phosphate receptor 1.
4. Fingolimod hydrochloride , a pak1 activator, can inhibit astemizole-induced hypertrophy and cytotoxicity in H9c2 cells, suggests that antihistamine-induced cardiac adverse effects are associated with pak1 expression and function.