(+)-Gallocatechin as a bio-antimutagenic compound against UV-induced mutation in Escherichia coli. It is potent in scavenging Fremy’s salt, a synthetic free radical, it possesses antioxidant capacities that is higher or comparable to that of ascorbic acid or Trolox.
Hispidulin has anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antiepileptic, neuroprotective, anti-osteoporotic and bone resorption attenuating effects, it targets the VEGF receptor 2-mediated PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in endothelial cells, leading to the suppression of pancreatic tumor growth and angiogenesis. Hispidulin can ameliorate high glucose-mediated endothelial dysfunction via inhibiting PKCβII-associated NLRP3 inflammasome activation and NF-κB signaling, it has potential application in the prevention and treatment of diabetic vascular complications. Hispidulin can inhibit platelet aggregation by elevating cAMP levels by a mechanism different from that of theophylline or PGE1.
Zingerone has anti-mutagenic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-obesity,anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. Zingerone can be recommended as a supplement to shrimp feed to increase growth, immunity, and disease resistance against the pathogen, V.alginolyticus , use of zingerone as appetizer and immunostimulant in shrimp is promising. It could as potential phytotherapeutic agent which in future can be employed to formulate preventive strategies against biofilm associated infections caused by P.aeruginosa.
Dictamnine shows anticholinesterase, anti-inflammatory, mutagenic, and has antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi. It has the ability to exert cytotoxicity in human cervix, colon, and oral carcinoma cells, it at higher concentrations(≥100uM) has potential hepatotoxicity because of the cell membrane damage and mitochondrial membrane damage.
Falcarindiol has antimutagenic, neuroprotective, antifungal, anti-bacterial, and anticancer activities, it could be potentially used in food manufactures and cosmetology as preservative agents and biopesticides, or in medicine as new antibiotics. Falcarindiol has protective effects against CCl(4) toxicity, in part, the effects might be explained by anti-lipid peroxidation activity associated with the induction of the GSTs including GSTA4.