Polydatin has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotection and anti-cancer activities, which has favorable potency to develop a hypolipemic and/or hepatoprotective agent in clinic. It is a mitochondria protector for acute severe hemorrhagic shock treatment, the neuronal mitochondrial injury is involved in the genesis of severe shock. Polydatin has a protective effect against ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat heart, the cardioprotection of polydatin is mainly mediated by cNOS which leading to an increase in NO production.
Coptisine is an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Coptidis Rhizoma with anti-diabetic, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-hepatoma, and anti-leukemia effects. Coptisine protects rat heart against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury by suppressing myocardial apoptosis and inflammation. Coptisine chloride can be absorbed across intestinal epithelial cells, and completely absorbed compounds.
Schisantherin A exhibits anti-tussive, sedative, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-osteoporotic, neuroprotective, cognition enhancing, and cardioprotective activities. Schisantherin A can significantly attenuate Aβ1-42-induced learning and memory impairment and noticeably improve the histopathological changes in the hippocampus. Schisantherin A exhibits neuroprotection against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+)) through the regulation of two distinct pathways including increasing CREB-mediated Bcl-2 expression and activating PI3K/Akt survival signaling.
Ginsenoside Rb3 has anti-myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, neuroprotective, antidepressant-like, and antioxidant effects, it also possesses the potential of the clinical use in preventing and treating diabetes. Ginsenoside Rb3 significantly attenuates the changes of creatine kinase activity and lactate dehydrogenase activity, exhibits inhibitory effect on TNFα-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity with an IC50 of 8.2 μM in 293T cell lines, it also inhibits the induction of COX-2 and iNOS mRNA.
Protopanaxdiol is effective in preventing and healing obesity, fatty liver and hypertriglyceridemia in mice fed with a high-fat diet, it inhibits tumor interstitial microvascular density and its proliferation activity, finally inhibits tumor growth, it also inhibits expression of VEGF and bFGF protein. (20R)-Protopanaxdiol has protective effect on myocardial ischemia, which may be related to improving free radicals metabolism and myocardial metabolism, decreasing plasma TXA 2 levels.