Nomilin has immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-human immunodeficiency virus(HIV), cancer chemopreventive, antiangiogenic, anti-obesity and anti-hyperglycemic effects. Nomilin inhibits tumor-specific angiogenesis by downregulating VEGF, NO and proinflammatory cytokine profile and also by inhibiting the activation of MMP-2 and MMP-9. It inhibits osteoclastogenesis in vitro by suppression of NFATc1 and MAPK signaling pathways, indicates that nomilin-containing herbal preparations have potential utility for the prevention of bone metabolic diseases.
Sanguinarine possesses anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties, it has therapeutic potential in preventing the neurodegenerative diseases, it may be used to develop a potential therapeutic drug for treating cardiac remodeling and heart failure and shows protective effects on teeth and alveolar bone health. Sanguinarine can inhibit osteoclast formation and bone resorption via suppressing RANKL-induced activation of NF-κB and ERK signaling pathways, and can protect against cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis via inhibiting NF-κB activation.
Praeruptorin A exerts neuroprotective, anti-osteoclastogenic, anti-inflammatory, distinct relaxant effects, it is beneficial to facilitate nestin expression in myocarditis,and suitable in treatment of early myocarditis. Praeruptorin A can significantly up-regulate UGT1A1 expression in HepG2 cells partially via the CAR-mediated pathway. Praeruptorin A inhibited p38/Akt-c-Fos-NFATc1 signaling and PLCγ-independent Ca2+ oscillation.
Fargesin has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antihypertensive , and anti-bone-resorbing effects, it is widely used in the treatment of managing rhinitis, inflammation, histamine, sinusitis, and headache. Fargesin improves lipid and glucose metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and high-fat diet-induced obese mice by activating Akt and AMPK in WAT. It as a potential β1 adrenergic receptor antagonist protects the hearts against ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats via attenuating oxidative stress and apoptosis.
Mangiferin is a bioactive compound that demonstrates many health perspectives and has been used to prepare medicinal and food supplements. Mangiferin has anti-steatotic , anti-cancer, anthelminthic and antiallergic activities, it has beneficial effect on the regulation of endothelial homeostasis and could be used in the management of diabetic cardiovascular complications. Mangiferin regulates proliferation and apoptosis in glioma cells by induction of miR-15b and inhibition of MMP-9 expression, it attenuates osteoclastogenesis, bone resorption, and RANKL-induced activation of NF-κB and ERK.