20(R)-Ginsenoside Rh2, a minor stereoisomer of ginsenoside Rh2, possesses matrix metalloproteinase inhibitory. 20(R)-Ginsenoside Rh2 has anticancer, anti- proliferation, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities, it also shows selective osteoclastgenesis inhibitory activity. 20(R)-Ginsenoside Rh2 reduce apoptotic rate significantly, enhance the activity of caspase-3 and induces apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.
3'4'7-Trihydroxyflavone can markedly inhibit the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) induced osteoclastic differentiation from mouse bone marrow derived macrophages (BMMs), it inhibits osteoclastogenesis via nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1).
Bavachalcone has antibiotic or anticancer activities, it may be useful as a therapeutic drug for bone resorption-associated diseases.Bavachalcone can protect the endothelial function by increasing AMPK activity and MnSOD expression and reducing mitochondrial oxidative stress.
2″-O-Rhamnosylicariside II shows potent antioxidant activity, with IC50 values of 11.5 ug/mL and 90.5 uM. It shows potent inhibitory activities on osteoclast-like cell formation at a concentration of 2 uM without toxic effects.
Alpha-Tocotrienol supplementation counteracts the lipid peroxidation but not the barrier perturbation in the stratum corneum (SC) induced by 10% benzoyl peroxide (BPO). It can exert anti-apoptotic neuroprotective action independently of its antioxidant property. Alpha-Tocotrienol inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption by suppressing RANKL expression and signaling and bone resorbing activity.