Caryophyllene oxide, an oxygenated terpenoid existed in many plant essential oil, is well known as preservative in food, drugs and cosmetics with antifungal, acaricidal, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, significant central as well as peripheral analgesic and skin penetration enhancing properties. Caryophyllene Oxide and lupenone have synergistic effect against Trypanosoma cruzi. It inhibited growth and induces apoptosis through the suppression of PI3K/AKT/mTOR/S6K1 pathways, ROS-mediated MAPKs activation, and via modulation of 15-LOX.
1. Camaric acid, lantanilic acid, and oleanolic acid possess nematicidal activity, they exhibit 95%, 98% and 70% mortality respectively against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita at 0.5% concentration.
2. Camaric acid shows antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant S. aureus with IC50 values 8.74 and 8.09 uM, respectively, it also shows moderate antileishmanial activity and highly potent antitrypanosomal activity.
3. Camaric acid shows anticancer activity.
4. Camaric acid shows significant topical anti-inflammatory activity with IC50 value of 0.67 mg/ear in the assay of TPA mouse ear oedema model.
Lupenone and lupeol inhibit protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) with IC50 values of 13.7 ± 2.1 and 5.6 ± 0.9 uM, respectively, they are non−competitive inhibitors of PTP1B, and PTP1B appears to be an attractive target for the development of new drugs for type 2 diabetes and obesity. Lupenone stimulates melanogenesis by increasing the tyrosinase enzyme expression via mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 phosphorylation inhibition. A 1 : 4 mixture of Lupenone and caryophyllene oxide shows trypanocidal activity.
1. Horminone may inhibit the initial steps of protein synthesis.
2. After administration of plant extracts containing Horminone has possibility of toxic effect.
3. Horminone and tingenone can inhibit the in vitro growth of Trypanosoma cruzi, 30 microM drug concentration producing total inhibition of growth.
4. Horminone has antimicrobial activity, it can inhibit the protein synthesis in several types of bacteria.
5. Horminone displays marked concentration-dependent antiproliferative effects.
1. Conocarpan has antinociceptive effects.
2. Conocarpan is quite active against S. aureus and B. subtilis with MIC of 6.25 micrograms/ml, it also shows activity against M. tuberculosis (MIC=15.6 ug/ml).
3. Conocarpan shows considerable activity against epimastigote forms of T. cruzi, with 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) of 8.0 microg/ml.