1. Astragaloside may protect against brain contusion and neuronal apoptosis after TBI by attenuating microglia activation in male rats.
2. Astragaloside has several pharmacological actions on cardiovascular system, including positive inotropic, anti-arrhythmia and anti-oxidant activities; it also has anti-apoptotic activity, which may contribute to the improvement of clinical outcomes in treating myocarditis with pharmaceutics of Astragalus membranaceus.
3. Astragalosides-induced apoptosis in NB4 cells may be associated with down-regulation of the expression of BCL-2 and NF-κB, finally the relative activity of caspase-3 activated.
Cyclovirobuxine D(CVB-D) has vasorelaxant effect, it has been widely used for treatment of cardiac insufficiency and arrhythmias in China, the antiarrhythmic and proarrhythmic potential of this drug might be concerned with prolongation of action potential duration and QT interval. CVB-D can induce autophagy in the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line by attenuating the phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR , CVB-D-induced autophagy and decrease in cell viability could be blocked by 3-methyladenine, a well-established autophagy inhibitor.
Sinomenine HCl is a blocker of the NF-κB activation and also an activator of μ-opioid receptor, which has antiarrhythmic, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and neuroprotective effects. Sinomenine HCl can improve survival, reduce organ damage, and attenuate the release of inflammatory cytokines induced by CLP, at least in part through regulating autophagy activities, it induces breast cancer cell death through ROS-dependent and -independent pathways with an upregulation of MAPKs.
Liensinine is a human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) inhibitor and a novel autophagy/mitophagy inhibitor, which can antagonize the ventricular arrhythmias. It exerts remarkable effect against thrombosis and possesses strong effect against platelet aggregation and coagulation.
2''-O-Galloylhyperin has effects on arrhythmias in an isolated tissue model of hypoxia and reperfusion.