Astragaloside II is a potent autophagy inhibitor and multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal agent, which restores chemosensitivity of anticancer agent cisplatin and enhances tumor cell death. It has immunomodulating activity, can trigger T cell activation through regulation of CD45 protein tyrosine phosphatase activity, it induces osteogenic activities of osteoblasts through the bone morphogenetic protein-2/MAPK and Smad1/5/8 pathways.
Liensinine is a human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) inhibitor and a novel autophagy/mitophagy inhibitor, which can antagonize the ventricular arrhythmias. It exerts remarkable effect against thrombosis and possesses strong effect against platelet aggregation and coagulation.
Matrine, a novel autophagy inhibitor, possesses anti-inflammation, immunosuppression, anti-fibrotic and anticancer activities, it could inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells in vitro by up-regulating Fas/FasL expression and activating caspase-3 enzyme. Matrine can be a potential candidate to fight against Candida-related infections by regulating yeast-to-hypha transition.