Scopolamine hydrobromide is a competitive muscarinic acetylcholine receptor with an IC50 of 55.3 nM, it also reversibly inhibited the 5-HT3 receptor-responses with an IC50 of 2.09 μM. Sscopolamine hydrobromide nasal gel is a safe and promising therapeutic alternative to existing medications for motion sickness, it and NaHCO3 can be used to treat tetrodotoxin (TTX) poisoning.
Scopolamine is a high affinity (nM) muscarinic antagonist. 5-HT3 receptor-responses are reversibly inhibited by Scopolamine with an IC50 of 2.09 μM. Scopolamine can cause learning and memory impairments and galantamine can reverse the symptom. It also can produce rapid and significant symptom improvement in patients with depression.
Hydrocortisone is a steroid hormone or glucocorticoid produced by the adrenal gland. Hydrocortisone improves outcome by limiting this immunosuppressive feedback loop via an interleukin-10-dependent elimination of dendritic cell by natural killer cells. Chronic administration of hydrocortisone leads to deficits in certain tests of cognitive function sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction and may contribute to the cognitive impairment reported in certain neuropsychiatric disorders. Hydrocortisone may reduce the extracellular spread of inflammation through the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases.
27-Hydroxycholesterol is a selective estrogen receptor modulator and an agonist of the liver X receptor, it may negatively modulate cognitive effects and cholesterol metabolism in the brain. 27-Hydroxycholesterol can enhance cell release of IL-8, IL-1β, and TNF-α and to upregulate matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) via TLR4/NF-κB-dependent pathway; it also can reduce hepatic inflammation in hyperlipidemic mice.
L-Phenylalanine has antibacterial activity.