Caffeic acid has antidiabetic, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory activities, it can suppress ultraviolet B(UVB)-induced COX-2 expression by blocking Fyn kinase activity, inhibits HBV-DNA replication as well as HBsAg production, also reduces serum DHBV level in DHBV-infected duckling model. Caffeic acid may be used as designed novel therapeutic drugs for Parkinson's disease by inhibiting α-synuclein fibrillation.
Alpha-lipoic acid has become a common ingredient in multivitamin formulas, anti-aging supplements, and even pet food, it is well-defined as a therapy for preventing diabetic polyneuropathies, and scavenges free radicals, chelates metals, and restores intracellular glutathione levels which otherwise decline with age. Alpha-lipoic acid has therapeutic effects on joint inflammation and erosion in an animal model via NF-kappa B down regulation, it inhibits TNF-alpha induced NF-kappa B activation through blocking of MEKK1-MKK4-IKK signaling cascades. Lipoic acid is a novel treatment for Alzheimer's disease and related dementias.
1. Conophylline plays a key role in the regulation of cell mass proliferation, maintenance of the undifferentiated state of iPMSCs and also promotes iPMSCs differentiated into insulin-producing cells.
2. Conophylline down-regulates the expression of the TNF-α receptors on the cell surface.
3. Conophylline is a novel differentiation inducer for pancreatic β cells, can increase the numbers of ductal cells positive for pancreatic-duodenal-homeobox protein-1 and islet-like cell clusters.
4. Conophylline has been shown to induce differentiation of pancreatic AR42J cells and increases the formation of beta-cells.
5. Conophylline suppresses pancreatic stellate cells and improves islet fibrosis in Goto-Kakizaki rats.
6. Conophylline protects cells in cellular models of neurodegenerative diseases by inducing mTOR-independent autophagy.
7. Conophylline suppresses hepatic stellate cells and attenuates thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis in rats.
Betaine hydrochloride is a natural compound found in many foods and also an active methyl-donor which can maintain normal DNA methylation patterns, which has anti-hypoxic, hepatoprotective, sedative, antipyretic and analgesic effects. Betaine hydrochloride can increase the secreting of thyroxine (T3) and insulin and regulate the metabolism of organism by the hormones, thus it prompts fish growth and also improves intestine figuration.
Stevioside is a safe natural sweetener, has no allergic reactions, suited for both diabetics, and PKU patients, as well as for obese persons intending to lose weight by avoiding sugar supplements in the diet. Stevioside enjoys a dual positive effect by acting as an antihyperglycemic and a blood pressure-lowering substance, it may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome.Stevioside exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties by inhibiting the release of cytokines and the activation of TLR2 and proteins of the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways, as well as caspase-3 and Bax.