1. Arbutin has whitening, anti- age effects and UVB/ UVC filter by inhibiting tyrosinase and thus preventing the formation of melanin.
2. Normal skin microflora may increase the skin lightening effect of arbutin due to the antioxidant action of hydroquinone.
3. Arbutin has mutagenicity in mammalian cells after activation by human intestinal bacteria.
4. Arbutin has gastroprotective activities.
5. Arbutin is an anti-oxidant and a depigmenting agent, also has anti-inflammatory effect, it may be useful for treating the inflammatory and deleterious effects of BV2 microglial cells activation in response to LPS stimulation.
1. Heraclenin induces apoptosis in Jurkat leukemia cells in mechanistically different ways.
1. Xanthotoxin potentiated nicotine-induced antinociception.
2. Xanthotoxin can protect the animals against maximal electroshock-induced seizures
3. Xanthotoxin inhibits nicotine metabolism to alter the behavioral effects of nicotine in the mouse.
1. Seneciphylline can significantly increased the activities of epoxide hydrase and glutathione-S-transferase but cause reduction of cytochrome P-450 and related monooxygenase activities.
2. Seneciphylline and senecionine can not produce any prominent in vitro effect on the hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes under study, but senecionine slight stimulate alkaloids and slight reduction of aminopyrine demethylase activity .
1. gamma-Fagarine possesses moderate levels of anti-HCV activities with IC₅₀ values being 20.4 ± 0.4 ug/ml, respectively.
2. gamma-Fagarine has sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs)-inducing activity, it induces SCEs in human lymphocyte cultures in a dose-dependent manner.
3. gamma-Fagarine and dictamnine are mutagenic in strain TA100 and TA98 with S9 mix, they have specific activities (His+/microgram) of about 50-70 revertant colonies in strain TA100, while in strain TA98 there are about 30-50 revertant colonies.