Rebaudioside A, an natural sweetening ingredient, is approximately 250 to 300 times sweeter than sucrose, do not contribute calories or carbohydrates to the diet and do not affect blood glucose or insulin response. It is a α-glucosidase inhibitor with IC50 of 35.01 μg/ml.
Neohesperidin, a natural new nutrition sweetener, has antioxidant (IC50=22.31ug/mL), anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. It can attenuate cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury via the inhibition of neuronal and oxidative stress through the regulation of the apoptotic pathway and activating the Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, it may be useful for the treatment and/or protection of gastritis.
Xylitol, a commonly used sweetener, it can inhibit the growth of pneumococci, it is effective in preventing otitis media and decreasing the need for antimicrobials when xylitol sugar given in a syrup or chewing gum. Xylitol is also a widely used anti-caries agent that has anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects, it inhibits salivary lysozyme activity.
Stevioside is a safe natural sweetener, has no allergic reactions, suited for both diabetics, and PKU patients, as well as for obese persons intending to lose weight by avoiding sugar supplements in the diet. Stevioside enjoys a dual positive effect by acting as an antihyperglycemic and a blood pressure-lowering substance, it may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome.Stevioside exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties by inhibiting the release of cytokines and the activation of TLR2 and proteins of the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways, as well as caspase-3 and Bax.
Erythritol is a biological sweetener with applications in food and pharmaceutical industries, it is also used as a functional sugar substitute in special foods for people with diabetes and obesity because of its unique nutritional properties. Erythritol consumption acutely improved small vessel endothelial function, and chronic treatment reduced central aortic stiffness, may be as a preferred sugar substitute for patients with diabetes mellitus.