1. Phyllanthin is widely used as hepatoprotective and antigenotoxic and inhibit function of P-gp.
1. Sodium danshensu (SDSS), the sodium salt of danshensu (DSS), has the neuroprotective effect against cerebral I/R injury, and the potential mechanism might to inhibition of apoptosis through activating the PI3K/Akt signal pathway.
2. Sodium danshensu has a protective effect against the genotoxicity of cigarette smoke.
3. Sodium danshensu shows a biphasic effects on vessel tension, while low dosage of sodium danshensu produces small contraction possibly through transient enhancement of Ca(2+) influx, high dosage produces significant vasodilation mainly through promoting the opening of non-selective K(+) channels and small-conductance calcium-sensitive K(+) channels in the vascular smooth muscle cells.
1. Formononetin has neuronal protective effect ,by increasing soluble-AβPPα (sAβPPα) secretion mainly conducted by upregulating ADAM10 expression at the transcriptional level.
2. Formononetin causes vasodilatation via endothelium-independent pathway and endothelium-dependent pathway of releasing NO.
3. Formononetin can significantly increase growth factors, such as transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs).
4. Formononetin promotes endothelial repair and wound healing in a process involving the over-expression of Egr-1 transcription factor through the regulation of the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways.
1. Hypophyllanthin can directly inhibit P-gp activity and did not interfere with MRP2 activity, it may reversibly inhibit P-gp function.
2. Hypophyllanthin can modulate the vascular tension via the endothelium-independent mechanisms.