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    27-Hydroxycholesterol
    27-Hydroxycholesterol
    Information
    CAS No. 20380-11-4 Price $218 / 10mg
    Catalog No.CFN90609Purity>=98%
    Molecular Weight402.65Type of CompoundSteroids
    FormulaC27H46O2Physical DescriptionPowder
    Download     COA    MSDSSimilar structuralComparison (Web)
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    Biological Activity
    Description: 27-Hydroxycholesterol is a selective estrogen receptor modulator and an agonist of the liver X receptor, it may negatively modulate cognitive effects and cholesterol metabolism in the brain. 27-Hydroxycholesterol can enhance cell release of IL-8, IL-1β, and TNF-α and to upregulate matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) via TLR4/NF-κB-dependent pathway; it also can reduce hepatic inflammation in hyperlipidemic mice.
    Targets: Liver X Receptor | HMG-CoA Reductase | LDL | TLR | TNF-α | NF-kB | MMP(e.g.TIMP) | IL Receptor | P450 (e.g. CYP17)
    In vivo:
    Neuroscience. 2015 Aug 6;300:163-73.
    27-Hydroxycholesterol contributes to disruptive effects on learning and memory by modulating cholesterol metabolism in the rat brain.[Pubmed: 25987203]
    Cholesterol metabolism is important for neuronal function in the central nervous system (CNS). The oxysterol 27-Hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) is a cholesterol metabolite that crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and may be a useful substitutive marker for neurodegenerative diseases. However, the effects of 27-Hydroxycholesterol on learning and memory and the underlying mechanisms are unclear.
    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    To determine this mechanism, we investigated learning and memory and cholesterol metabolism in rat brain following the injection of various doses of 27-Hydroxycholesterol into the caudal vein. We found that 27-Hydroxycholesterol increased cholesterol levels and upregulated the expression of liver X receptor-α (LXR-α) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transporter protein family member A1 (ABCA1). In addition, 27-Hydroxycholesterol decreased the expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CR) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) in rat brain tissues.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    These findings suggest that 27-Hydroxycholesterol may negatively modulate cognitive effects and cholesterol metabolism in the brain.
    Behav Brain Res. 2015 Feb 1;278:356-9.
    27-hydroxycholesterol mediates negative effects of dietary cholesterol on cognition in mice.[Pubmed: 25453744]
    In spite of the fact that cholesterol does not pass the blood-brain barrier, treatment of mice with dietary cholesterol causes significant effects on a number of genes in the brain and in addition a memory impairment.
    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    We have suggested that these effects are mediated by 27-Hydroxycholesterol, which is able to pass the blood-brain barrier. To test this hypothesis we utilized Cyp27-/- mice lacking 27-Hydroxycholesterol. The negative effect on memory observed after treatment of wildtype mice with dietary cholesterol was not observed in these mice. The cholesterol diet reduced the levels of the "memory protein" Arc (Activity Regulated Cytoskeleton associated protein) in the hippocampus of the wildtype mice but not in the hippocampus of the Cyp27-/- mice.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    The results are consistent with 27-Hydroxycholesterol as the mediator of the negative effects of cholesterol on cognition.
    27-Hydroxycholesterol Description
    Source:
    Solvent: Chloroform, Dichloromethane, Ethyl Acetate, DMSO, Acetone, etc.
    Storage: Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).

    Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.

    Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: service@chemfaces.com

    After receiving: The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.
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    Calculate Dilution Ratios(Only for Reference)
    1 mg 5 mg 10 mg 20 mg 25 mg
    1 mM 2.4835 mL 12.4177 mL 24.8355 mL 49.6709 mL 62.0887 mL
    5 mM 0.4967 mL 2.4835 mL 4.9671 mL 9.9342 mL 12.4177 mL
    10 mM 0.2484 mL 1.2418 mL 2.4835 mL 4.9671 mL 6.2089 mL
    50 mM 0.0497 mL 0.2484 mL 0.4967 mL 0.9934 mL 1.2418 mL
    100 mM 0.0248 mL 0.1242 mL 0.2484 mL 0.4967 mL 0.6209 mL
    * Note: If you are in the process of experiment, it's need to make the dilution ratios of the samples. The dilution data of the sheet for your reference. Normally, it's can get a better solubility within lower of Concentrations.
    Protocol
    Kinase Assay:
    Aging Cell. 2015 Aug;14(4):569-81.
    Relation between TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway activation by 27-hydroxycholesterol and 4-hydroxynonenal, and atherosclerotic plaque instability.[Pubmed: 25757594]
    It is now thought that atherosclerosis, although due to increased plasma lipids, is mainly the consequence of a complicated inflammatory process, with immune responses at the different stages of plaque development. Increasing evidence points to a significant role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a key player in innate immunity, in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    This study aimed to determine the effects on TLR4 activation of two reactive oxidized lipids carried by oxidized low-density lipoproteins, the oxysterol 27-Hydroxycholesterol (27-OH) and the aldehyde 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), both of which accumulate in atherosclerotic plaques and play a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Secondarily, it examined their potential involvement in mediating inflammation and extracellular matrix degradation, the hallmarks of high-risk atherosclerotic unstable plaques. In human promonocytic U937 cells, both 27-OH and HNE were found to enhance cell release of IL-8, IL-1β, and TNF-α and to upregulate matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) via TLR4/NF-κB-dependent pathway; these actions may sustain the inflammatory response and matrix degradation that lead to atherosclerotic plaque instability and to their rupture. Using specific antibodies, it was also demonstrated that these inflammatory cytokines increase MMP-9 upregulation, thus enhancing the release of this matrix-degrading enzyme by macrophage cells and contributing to plaque instability.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    These innovative results suggest that, by accumulating in atherosclerotic plaques, the two oxidized lipids may contribute to plaque instability and rupture. They appear to do so by sustaining the release of inflammatory molecules and MMP-9 by inflammatory and immune cells, for example, macrophages, through activation of TLR4 and its NF-κB downstream signaling.
    Animal Research:
    J Hepatol. 2015 Feb;62(2):430-6.
    Hematopoietic overexpression of Cyp27a1 reduces hepatic inflammation independently of 27-hydroxycholesterol levels in Ldlr(-/-) mice.[Pubmed: 25281859 ]
    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammation. Currently, the underlying mechanisms, leading to hepatic inflammation, are still unknown. The breakdown of free cholesterol inside Kupffer cells (KCs) by the mitochondrial enzyme CYP27A1 produces 27-Hydroxycholesterol (27HC). We recently demonstrated that administration of 27HC to hyperlipidemic mice reduced hepatic inflammation. In line, hematopoietic deletion of Cyp27a1 resulted in increased hepatic inflammation. In the current manuscript, the effect of hematopoietic overexpression of Cyp27a1 on the development of NASH and cholesterol trafficking was investigated. We hypothesized that Cyp27a1 overexpression in KCs will lead to reduced hepatic inflammation.
    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    Irradiated Ldlr(-/-) mice were transplanted (tp) with bone marrow from mice overexpressing Cyp27a1 (Cyp27a1(over)) and wild type (Wt) mice and fed either chow or a high-fat, high-cholesterol (HFC) diet for 3 months. Additionally, gene expression was assessed in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) from Cyp27a1(over) and Wt mice. In line with our hypothesis, hepatic inflammation in HFC-fed Cyp27a1(over)-tp mice was reduced and KCs were less foamy compared to Wt-tp mice. Remarkably, these changes occurred even though plasma and liver levels of 27HC did not differ between both groups. BMDM from Cyp27a1(over) mice revealed reduced inflammatory gene expression and increased expression of cholesterol transporters compared to Wt BMDM after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    Our data suggest that overexpression of Cyp27a1 in KCs reduces hepatic inflammation independently of 27HC levels in plasma and liver, further pointing towards KCs as specific target for improving the therapy of NASH.