|Source:||The fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz.|
|Biological Activity or Inhibitors:||1. Arjunolic acid has anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and anticholinesterasic (AChE and BuChE) activities, it may as promising targets for the development of innovative multi-functional medicines for Alzheimer desease treatment.
2. Arjunolic acid may protect liver and kidney from ATO-induced severe tissue toxicity.
3. Arjunolic acid effects appears mainly restricted or originated at the parasite peripheral cytoplasm.
4. Arjunolic acid possesses antioxidant properties and plays protective roles against chemically induced organ pathophysiology.
5. Arjunolic acid can protect against cisplatin-induced testicular injury by attenuating oxidative stress parameters along with downregulation of iNOS, TNF-α, and p38-MAPK testicular expressions.
6. Arjunolic acid protects cardiac tissues from both extrinsic and intrinsic cell death pathways.
7. Arjunulic acid produces antitumor activity against Ehrlich Ascites carcinoma (EAC) by increasing cytotoxicity and apoptosis and partially blocking the TGF-βR1 and affecting inflammatory cytokine levels.
8. Arjunolic acid exhibits better protection against histamine release than against acetylcholine release, anti-asthmatic and anaphylactic activity of it may be possibly due to membrane stabilizing potential and inhibition of antigen induced histamine and acetylcholine release.
|Solvent:||Chloroform, Dichloromethane, Ethyl Acetate, DMSO, Acetone, etc.|
|Storage:||Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: email@example.com
|After receiving:||The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.|
|1 mg||5 mg||10 mg||20 mg||25 mg|
|1 mM||2.0462 mL||10.2312 mL||20.4625 mL||40.9249 mL||51.1561 mL|
|5 mM||0.4092 mL||2.0462 mL||4.0925 mL||8.185 mL||10.2312 mL|
|10 mM||0.2046 mL||1.0231 mL||2.0462 mL||4.0925 mL||5.1156 mL|
|50 mM||0.0409 mL||0.2046 mL||0.4092 mL||0.8185 mL||1.0231 mL|
|100 mM||0.0205 mL||0.1023 mL||0.2046 mL||0.4092 mL||0.5116 mL|
Life Sci. 2014 Aug 28;111(1-2):18-26.
|Protective effects of arjunolic acid against cardiac toxicity induced by oral sodium nitrite: effects on cytokine balance and apoptosis.[Pubmed: 25064822]|
|Arjunolic acid possesses antioxidant properties and plays protective roles against chemically induced organ pathophysiology. We investigated the effect of sodium nitrite on cardiac tissue in rats on the inflammatory cytokine balance and the type of induced apoptosis, and we analyzed the protective role of Arjunolic acid. MAIN METHODS: Sixty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with 80mg/kg sodium nitrite in the presence/absence of Arjunolic acid (100 and 200mg/kg). Cardiac pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β), c-reactive protein (CRP) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) were measured by ELISA. Cardiac mitochondrial activity (cytochrome-C-oxidase), JNK activation and apoptosis (caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9) were assessed. KEY FINDINGS: Sodium nitrite resulted in increased TNF-α (1.6-fold), IL-1β (3.7-fold) and CRP (2.4-fold) levels accompanied by 52%, 59% and 40% reductions in IL-10, IL-4 and cytochrome-C-oxidase, respectively, as well as enhanced JNK, caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9 activities. Arjunolic acid markedly ameliorated these effects. SIGNIFICANCE: Arjunolic acid attenuated sodium nitrite-induced cardiac damage in rats and restored the normal balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, Arjunolic acid protected cardiac tissues from both extrinsic and intrinsic cell death pathways.|
J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2014 Nov;28(11):515-21.
|Cisplatin-induced testicular toxicity in rats: the protective effect of arjunolic acid.[Pubmed: 25130312 ]|
|In the present study, the effect of Arjunolic acid on testicular damage induced by intraperitoneal injection of rats with 7 mg/kg cisplatin was studied. Arjunolic acid administration significantly corrected the changes in both biochemical and histopathological parameters. Arjunolic acid plays a significant protective role against cisplatin-induced testicular injury by attenuating oxidative stress parameters along with downregulation of iNOS, TNF-α, and p38-MAPK testicular expressions.|
Biochimie. 2013 Jun;95(6):1098-109.
|Arjunolic acid: a new multifunctional therapeutic promise of alternative medicine.[Pubmed: 23402784]|
|This review highlights the beneficial role of Arjunolic acid, a naturally occurring chiral triterpenoid saponin, in various organ pathophysiology and the underlying mechanism of its protective action. Studies on the biochemistry and pharmacology suggest the potential use of Arjunolic acid as a novel promising therapeutic strategy. WHAT THE READERS WILL GAIN: The multifunctional therapeutic application of Arjunolic acid has already been documented by its various biological functions including antioxidant, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anticholinesterase, antitumor, antiasthmatic, wound healing and insect growth inhibitor activities. Its antioxidant property coupled with metal chelating property (by its two hydroxyl groups) protects different organs from metal and drug-induced organ pathophysiology. Arjunolic acid also plays a beneficial role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and its associated complications. The mechanism of cytoprotection of Arjunolic acid, at least in part, results from the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in the respective pathophysiology. Esters of Arjunolic acid function as organogelators which has wide application in designing thermochromic switches and sensor devices. Arjunolic acid derived crown ether is an attractive candidate for the design of molecular receptors, biomimetics and supramolecular systems capable of performing some biological functions. HOME MESSAGE: This review would provide useful information about the recent progress of natural product research in the domain of clinical science. This review also aims to untie the multifunctional therapeutic application of Arjunolic acid, a nanometer-long naturally occurring chiral triterpenoid biomolecule.|
Biochimie. 2015 May;112:20-34.
|Protective effect of arjunolic acid against atorvastatin induced hepatic and renal pathophysiology via MAPK, mitochondria and ER dependent pathways.[Pubmed: 25736991]|
|To investigate the protective role of Arjunolic acid (AA) against ATO induced oxidative impairment and cell death in hepatic and renal tissue in mice. Post treatment with Arjunolic acid (at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight for 4 days), however, reduced ATO-induced oxidative stress and suppressed all these apoptotic events. Results suggest that Arjunolic acid could effectively and extensively counteract these adverse effects and might protect liver and kidney from ATO-induced severe tissue toxicity.|
Curr Top Med Chem. 2014;14(8):1022-32.
|Modes of action of arjunolic acid and derivatives on Trypanosoma cruzi cells.[Pubmed: 24660682]|
|The triterpene Arjunolic acid (AA), reduced the Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote in vitro proliferation with an apparent IC₅₀ of 171 µM. Electron microscopy analysis revealed remarkable effects on the parasite surface and architecture. Arjunolic acid-treated parasites displayed minutely corrugated plasma membranes devoid of subpellicular microtubules as well as biogenesis of multiple basal bodies. As the Arjunolic acid effects appeared mainly restricted or originated at the parasite peripheral cytoplasm.|
J. Brazil. Chem. Soc., 2005, 16(6B):1309-12.
|Arjunolic acid in the ethanolic extract of Combretum leprosum root and its use as a potential multi-functional phytomedicine and drug for neurodegenerative disorders: Anti-inflammatory and anticholinesterasic activities.[Reference: WebLink]|
|Combretum leprosum Mart. & Eicher (Combretaceae) leaves and roots ethanolic extracts were investigated by HRGC-MS and showed mono- and oligosaccharides, fatty acids and triterpenes as major compounds after derivatization with BSTFA/ TMCS. Arjunolic acid (1) was quantified on dried roots ethanolic extract (65%) by external standard. Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and anticholinesterasic (AChE and BuChE) activities were observed for roots ethanolic extract of C. leprosum and Arjunolic acid, suggesting both as promising targets for the development of innovative multi-functional medicines for Alzheimer desease treatment.|
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016 Aug;82:28-34.
|Anti-tumor activity of arjunolic acid against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma cells in vivo and in vitro through blocking TGF-β type 1 receptor.[Pubmed: 27470335 ]|
|We aimed to evaluate therapeutic potential of Arjunolic acid (AA), in Terminalia Arjuna bark, on Ehrlich Ascites carcinoma (EAC) in-vivo and in-vitro. EAC was induced in fifty female Swiss albino mice. Two doses of AA was used 100 and 250mg/kg. Arjunulic acid reduced tumor volume and cells count. AA decreased EAC cells viability and increased cell toxicity. Moreover, AA reduced TNF-α, IL-1β, TGF-β, TGF-β type I receptor and latency-associated peptide levels associated with elevated IL-10 in-vivo and in-vitro. In conclusion, AA produced antitumor activity against EAC by increasing cytotoxicity and apoptosis and partially blocking the TGF-βR1 and affecting inflammatory cytokine levels.|
Nat. Prod. Sci., 2004, 10(5):240-3.
|Antiallergic and anti-asthmatic activities of the alcoholic extract of Terminalia arjuna and arjunolic acid.[Reference: WebLink]|
|In the present study, the alcoholic extract of Terminalia arjuna (TA) and Arjunolic acid (AA) were studied for its anti-asthmatic and anaphylactic activity. Treatment with TA (250 & 500 mg/kg) and AA (50 & 100 mg/kg) has shown significant protection against mast cell disruption in rats induced by compound 48/80. TA and AA also protected the guinea pig against histamine as well as acetylcholine induced bronchospasm. Both TA & AA exhibited better protection against histamine release than against acetylcholine release. Anti-asthmatic and anaphylactic activity may be possibly due to membrane stabilizing potential and inhibition of antigen induced histamine and acetylcholine release.|