|Source:||The roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.|
|Biological Activity or Inhibitors:||1. Licochalcone D may be a potential drug for human melanoma treatment by inhibiting proliferation, inducing apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway and blocking cell migration and invasion.
2. Licochalcone D has cardioprotective potential against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in langendorff-perfused rat hearts.
3. Licochalcone D has anti-inflammatory activity, it shows suppression ability of nitric oxide (NO) production.
4. Licochalcone D has anti-allergic activity, it suppresses degranulation by decreasing the intracellular Ca2+ level and tyrosine phosphorylation of ERK in RBL-2H3 cells.
|Solvent:||Chloroform, Dichloromethane, Ethyl Acetate, DMSO, Acetone, etc.|
|Storage:||Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: email@example.com
|After receiving:||The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.|
|1 mg||5 mg||10 mg||20 mg||25 mg|
|1 mM||2.8217 mL||14.1084 mL||28.2167 mL||56.4334 mL||70.5418 mL|
|5 mM||0.5643 mL||2.8217 mL||5.6433 mL||11.2867 mL||14.1084 mL|
|10 mM||0.2822 mL||1.4108 mL||2.8217 mL||5.6433 mL||7.0542 mL|
|50 mM||0.0564 mL||0.2822 mL||0.5643 mL||1.1287 mL||1.4108 mL|
|100 mM||0.0282 mL||0.1411 mL||0.2822 mL||0.5643 mL||0.7054 mL|
Oncol Rep. 2018 May;39(5):2160-2170.
|Licochalcone D induces apoptosis and inhibits migration and invasion in human melanoma A375 cells.[Pubmed: 29565458]|
|The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of Licochalcone D (LD) on the apoptosis and migration and invasion in human melanoma A375 cells. Cell proliferation was determined by sulforhodamine B assay. Apoptosis was assessed by Hoechst 33258 and Annexin V‑FITC/PI staining and JC‑1 assay. Total intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was examined by DCFH‑DA. Wound healing and Transwell assays were used to detect migration and invasion of the cells. The activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP‑2 and MMP‑9) were assessed via gelatin zymography. Tumor growth in vivo was evaluated in C57BL/6 mice. RT‑PCR, qPCR, ELISA and western blot analysis were utilized to measure the mRNA and protein levels. Our results showed that LD inhibited the proliferation of A375 and SK‑MEL‑5 cells in a concentration‑dependent manner. After treatment with LD, A375 cells displayed obvious apoptotic characteristics, and the number of apoptotic cells was significantly increased. Pro‑apoptotic protein Bax, caspase‑9 and caspase‑3 were upregulated, while anti‑apoptotic protein Bcl‑2 was downregulated in the LD‑treated cells. Meanwhile, LD induced the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and increased the level of ROS. ROS production was inhibited by the co‑treatment of LD and free radical scavenger N‑acetyl‑cysteine (NAC). Furthermore, LD also blocked A375 cell migration and invasion in vitro which was associated with the downregulation of MMP‑9 and MMP‑2. Finally, intragastric administration of LD suppressed tumor growth in the mouse xenograft model of murine melanoma B16F0 cells. These results suggest that LD may be a potential drug for human melanoma treatment by inhibiting proliferation, inducing apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway and blocking cell migration and invasion.|
PLoS One. 2015 Jun 9;10(6):e0128375.
|Cardioprotective Effect of Licochalcone D against Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Langendorff-Perfused Rat Hearts.[Pubmed: 26058040]|
|Flavonoids are important components of 'functional foods', with beneficial effects on cardiovascular function. The present study was designed to investigate whether Licochalcone D (LD) could be a cardioprotective agent in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and to shed light on its possible mechanism. Compared with the I/R group, LD treatment enhanced myocardial function (increased LVDP, dp/dtmax, dp/dtmin, HR and CR) and suppressed cardiac injury (decreased LDH, CK and myocardial infarct size). Moreover, LD treatment reversed the I/R-induced cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP, resulting in a significant decrease in proinflammatory factors and an increase in antioxidant capacity in I/R myocardial tissue. The mechanisms underlying the antiapoptosis, antiinflammation and antioxidant effects were related to the activation of the AKT pathway and to the blockage of the NF-κB/p65 and p38 MAPK pathways in the I/R-injured heart. Additionally, LD treatment markedly activated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and reduced nitric oxide (NO) production. The findings indicated that LD had real cardioprotective potential and provided support for the use of LD in myocardial I/R injury.|
Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2014 Jan 1;24(1):181-5.
|Synthesis of licochalcone analogues with increased anti-inflammatory activity.[Pubmed: 24316124 ]|
|Licohalcones have been reported to have various biological activities. However, most of licochalcones also showed cytotoxicity even though their versitile utilities. Licochalcone B and Licochalcone D, which have common substituents at aromatic ring B, are targeted to modify the structure at aromatic ring A for inflammatory studies. Licochalcone Derivatives (1-6) thus prepared are compared for their suppression ability of nitric oxide (NO) production and showed 9.94, 4.72, 10.1, 4.85, 2.37 and 4.95μM of IC50 values, respectively.|
Int Immunopharmacol. 2010 Jul;10(7):769-76.
|Licochalcones suppress degranulation by decreasing the intracellular Ca2+ level and tyrosine phosphorylation of ERK in RBL-2H3 cells.[Pubmed: 20399908 ]|
|Mast cells play a key role in allergic inflammation by releasing various mediators, such as histamine, serotonin, leukotrienes and cytokines. A signaling cascade of events activated by stimulation with antigens contributes to the regulation of mast cell degranulation. While various anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic drugs have been developed that inhibit degranulation of mast cells, the inhibitory mechanism has been poorly understood. Licochalcone A (Lico A) is a retrochalcone isolated from the root of Xinjiang liquorice and has been reported to exhibit various biological activities such as anti-inflammatory activity. We examined the effects of Lico A and related chalcones on degranulation in a rat basophilic leukemia cell line, RBL-2H3. Whereas Lico A and licochalcone C (Lico C) exhibited inhibitory activity with cytotoxicity, Licochalcone D (Lico D) significantly inhibited the degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells with low cytotoxicity. Moreover, Lico D significantly inhibited the Ca2+ influx and phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) and MEK. These results suggest that Lico D inhibits mast cell degranulation via the inhibition of both extracellular Ca2+ influx and activation of the MEK-ERK pathway.|
Int Immunopharmacol. 2009 Apr;9(4):499-507.
|Glycyrrhiza inflata-derived chalcones, Licochalcone A, Licochalcone B and Licochalcone D, inhibit phosphorylation of NF-kappaB p65 in LPS signaling pathway.[Pubmed: 19291859]|
|Licorice root has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of gastric ulcer, bronchial asthma and inflammation. Licochalcone A is a major component of Xinjiang licorice, Glycyrrhiza inflata. Previously we showed that Licochalcone A significantly inhibited LPS-induced NF-kappaB transcriptional activation by abrogating the phosphorylation of NF-kappaB p65 at serine 276. Glycyrrhiza inflata contains not only Licochalcone A but also Licochalcone B, Licochalcone C, Licochalcone D, Echinatin and Isoliquiritigenin, harboring the common structure of chalcones. No chalcones had any effect on LPS-induced IkappaB degradation, nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of NF-kappaB p65; however, we observed that Licochalcone B and Licochalcone D significantly inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation at serine 276 and transcriptional activation of NF-kappaB, the same as Licochalcone A. Interestingly, we also found that Licochalcone A, Licochalcone B and Licochalcone D effectively inhibited LPS-induced activation of PKA, which is required for the phosphorylation of NF-kappaB p65 at serine 276. Consequently, Licochalcone B and Licochalcone D significantly reduced the LPS-induced production of NO, TNFalpha and MCP-1. On the other hand, Licochalcone C, Echinatin and Isoliquitigenin failed to inhibit LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation. These findings suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of Glycyrrhiza inflata is ascribable to the potent inhibition of NF-kappaB by Licochalcone A, Licochalcone B and Licochalcone D.|