|Source:||The herbs of Coreopsis maritima|
|Biological Activity or Inhibitors:||1. Marein shows neuroprotective effect on PC12 cell damage induced by methylglyoxal,
which is due to a reduction of damage to mitochondria function and activation of the AMPK signal pathway, indicates that marein may be a potent compound for preventing/counteracting diabetic encephalopathy.
2. Marein shows antioxidant activity.
3. Marein can improve insulin resistance induced by high glucose in HepG2 cells through CaMKK/AMPK/GLUT1 to promote glucose uptake, through IRS/Akt/GSK-3β to increase glycogen synthesis, and through Akt/FoxO1 to decrease gluconeogenesis.
4. Marein shows Histone deacetylase enzymes (HDACs) inhibitory activity and it also can inhibit TNFα-induced NF-κB activation.
|Solvent:||Chloroform, Dichloromethane, Ethyl Acetate, DMSO, Acetone, etc.|
|Storage:||Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: email@example.com
|After receiving:||The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.|
|1 mg||5 mg||10 mg||20 mg||25 mg|
|1 mM||2.2202 mL||11.1012 mL||22.2025 mL||44.405 mL||55.5062 mL|
|5 mM||0.444 mL||2.2202 mL||4.4405 mL||8.881 mL||11.1012 mL|
|10 mM||0.222 mL||1.1101 mL||2.2202 mL||4.4405 mL||5.5506 mL|
|50 mM||0.0444 mL||0.222 mL||0.444 mL||0.8881 mL||1.1101 mL|
|100 mM||0.0222 mL||0.111 mL||0.222 mL||0.444 mL||0.5551 mL|
Free Radic Res. 2016;50(11):1173-1187.
|Marein protects against methylglyoxal-induced apoptosis by activating the AMPK pathway in PC12 cells.[Pubmed: 27596733 ]|
|Marein attenuated MG-induced changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), mitochondrial permeability transition pores (mPTPs), intracellular Ca2+ levels, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and the increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells. Marein also increased glyoxalase I (Glo1) activity, phospho-AMPKα (Thr172) and Bcl-2 expression and diminished the activation of Bax, caspase-3 and inhibitor of caspase-activated deoxyribonuclease (ICAD). Importantly, pretreatment of cells with Marein diminished the compound C-induced inactivation of p-AMPK. Molecular docking simulation showed that Marein interacted with the γ subunit of AMPK. In conclusion, we found for the first time that the neuroprotective effect of Marein is due to a reduction of damage to mitochondria function and activation of the AMPK signal pathway. These results indicate that Marein may be a potent compound for preventing/counteracting diabetic encephalopathy.|
J Food Sci. 2016 Sep;81(9):C2218-23.
|Rapid Identification and Comparison of Compounds with Antioxidant Activity in Coreopsis tinctoria Herbal Tea by High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography Coupled with DPPH Bioautography and Densitometry.[Pubmed: 27516219]|
|Results showed that 7 compounds made up the major contributions of antioxidant activity in C. tinctoria, including okanin, isookanin, Marein, flavanoMarein, 5,7,3',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone-7-O-glucoside, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and chlorogenic acid. Therefore, 7 compounds were identified as major antioxidant biomarkers for quality control of C. tinctoria. Results demonstrated that the established method could be applied for the identification of C. tinctoria, and were beneficial for the bioactivity-based quality control of C. tinctoria.|
Phytomedicine. 2016 Aug 15;23(9):891-900.
|Protective effects of marein on high glucose-induced glucose metabolic disorder in HepG2 cells.[Pubmed: 27387397 ]|
|Consequently, Marein improved insulin resistance induced by high glucose in HepG2 cells through CaMKK/AMPK/GLUT1 to promote glucose uptake, through IRS/Akt/GSK-3β to increase glycogen synthesis, and through Akt/FoxO1 to decrease gluconeogenesis. Marein could be a promising leading compound for the development of hypoglycemic agent or developed as an adjuvant drug for diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.|
Oncol Rep. 2012 Sep;28(3):797-805.
|Natural chalcones as dual inhibitors of HDACs and NF-κB.[Pubmed: 22710558 ]|
|Since HDACs regulate the expression of the transcription factor NF-κB, we also evaluated the inhibitory potential of the compounds on NF-κB activation. Only four chalcones, isoliquiritigenin (no. 10), butein (no. 12), homobutein (no. 15) and the glycoside Marein (no. 21) showed HDAC inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 60-190 μM, whereas a number of compounds inhibited TNFα-induced NF-κB activation with IC50 values in the range of 8-41 μM. Interestingly, three chalcones (nos. 10, 12 and 15) inhibited both TNFα-induced NF-κB activity and total HDAC activity of classes I, II and IV. Molecular modeling and docking studies were performed to shed light into dual activity and to draw structure-activity relationships among chalcones (nos. 1-21).|