||Rutaecarpine is an inhibitor of COX-2 with an IC50 value of 0.28 μM, and is also a potent inhibitor of CYP1A2. Rutaecarpine has anti-atherosclerosis, immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, vasorelaxing, antihypertensive and anti-platelet effects. Rutaecarpine has positive inotropic and chronotropic effects on the guinea-pig isolated right atria, possible involvement of vanilloid receptors. Rutaecarpine may be useful in the prevention of ultraviolet A-induced photoaging, it inhibits ultraviolet A-induced reactive oxygen species generation, resulting in the enhanced expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in human skin cells.
||NO | NOS | c-Myc | TRPV | LDL | P450 (e.g. CYP17) | IL Receptor | TNF-α | CGRP Receptor | Calcium Channel | MMP(e.g.TIMP) | gp120/CD4 | COX-2 | PGE | Phospholipase (e.g. PLA)|
|Chin J Integr Med. 2014 Sep;20(9):682-7. |
|Rutaecarpine inhibits angiotensin II-induced proliferation in rat vascular smooth muscle cells.[Pubmed: 23775171]|
To evaluate the effects and possible mechanisms of Rutaecarpine on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced proliferation in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs).
To examine the mechanisms involved in anti-proliferative effects of Rutaecarpine, nitric oxide (NO) levels and NO synthetase (NOS) activity were determined. Expressions of VSMC proliferation-related genes including endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and c-myc hypertension related gene-1 (HRG-1) were determined by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Rutaecarpine (0.3-3.0 μmol/L) inhibited Ang II-induced VSMC proliferation and the best effects were achieved at 3.0 μmol/L. The Ang II-induced decreases in cellular NO contents and NOS activities were antagonized by Rutaecarpine (P <0.05). Ang II administration suppressed the expressions of eNOS and HRG-1, while increased c-myc expression (P <0.05). All these effects were attenuated by 3.0 μmol/L Rutaecarpine (P <0.05).
Rutaecarpine is effective against Ang II-induced rat VSMC proliferation, and this effect is due, at least in part, to NO production and the modulation of VMSC proliferation-related gene expressions.|
|Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Mar;30(3):349-53. |
|The alkaloid rutaecarpine is a selective inhibitor of cytochrome P450 1A in mouse and human liver microsomes.[Pubmed: 11854157]|
|Rutaecarpine, evodiamine, and dehydroevodiamine are quinazolinocarboline alkaloids isolated from a traditional Chinese medicine, Evodia rutaecarpa. The in vitro effects of these alkaloids on cytochrome P450 (P450)-catalyzed oxidations were studied using mouse and human liver microsomes.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Among these alkaloids, Rutaecarpine showed the most potent and selective inhibitory effect on CYP1A-catalyzed 7-methoxyresorufin O-demethylation (MROD) and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD) activities in untreated mouse liver microsomes. The IC(50) ratio of EROD to MROD was 6. For MROD activity, Rutaecarpine was a noncompetitive inhibitor with a K(i) value of 39 +/- 2 nM. In contrast, Rutaecarpine had no effects on benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylation (AHH), aniline hydroxylation, and nifedipine oxidation (NFO) activities. In human liver microsomes, 1 microM Rutaecarpine caused 98, 91, and 77% decreases of EROD, MROD, and phenacetin O-deethylation activities, respectively. In contrast, less than 15% inhibition of AHH, tolbutamide hydroxylation, chlorzoxazone hydroxylation, and NFO activities were observed in the presence of 1 microM Rutaecarpine. To understand the selectivity of inhibition of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2, inhibitory effects of Rutaecarpine were studied using liver microsomes of 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC)-treated mice and Escherichia coli membrane expressing bicistronic human CYP1A1 and CYP1A2. Similar to the CYP1A2 inhibitor furafylline, Rutaecarpine preferentially inhibited MROD more than EROD and had no effect on AHH in 3-MC-treated mouse liver microsomes. For bicistronic human P450s, the IC(50) value of Rutaecarpine for EROD activity of CYP1A1 was 15 times higher than the value of CYP1A2.
These results indicated that Rutaecarpine was a potent inhibitor of CYP1A2 in both mouse and human liver microsomes.
|J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Mar;276(3):1016-21. |
|The vasorelaxing action of rutaecarpine: direct paradoxical effects on intracellular calcium concentration of vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells.[Pubmed: 8786530]|
|We have examined both the hypotensive effect and the mechanism of intracellular Ca++ regulation, underlying Rutaecarpine (Rut)-induced vasodilatation. An i.v. bolus injection of Rut in anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats produced a dose-dependent hypotensive effect.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
In isolated rat aorta rings, Rut (0.1-3 mu M) inhibited the phasic and tonic responses of norepinephrine- and phyenylephrine-induced contractions, respectively, mainly through an endothelium-dependent mechanism. However, the vasorelaxing effect of Rut (3 microM) persisted in denuded aorta, although to a much less extent than in intact tissue. As determined by the fura-2/AM (1-[2-(5-carboxyoxazol-2-yl)-6-aminobenzofuran-5-oxy]-2-(2'- amino-5'-methylphenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid pentaacetoxymethyl ester) method, Rut (10 microM), in the presence of extracellular Ca++, suppressed the KCI-induced increment in the intracellular Ca++ concentration ([Ca++]i) of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Rut (10 microM) also attenuated the norepinephrine-induced peak rise of [Ca++]i in VSMC placed in Ca++-free solution. On the other hand, Rut (1 and 10 microM) increased the level of [Ca++]i of cultured endothelial cells (EC) in the presence of extracellular Ca++.
In conclusion, Rut acts on both VSMC and EC directly. In VSMC, it reduces [Ca++]i through the inhibition of Ca++ influx and Ca++ release from intracellular stores. In EC, Rut augments EC [Ca++]i by increasing Ca++ influx, possibly leading to nitric oxide release. The paradoxical regulation of Ca++ in both VSMC and EC acts simultaneously to cause vasorelaxation which could account, at least in part, for the hypotensive action. This is a most significant and a unique feature of this study.
|Peptides. 2008 Oct;29(10):1781-8. |
|Calcitonin gene-related peptide-mediated antihypertensive and anti-platelet effects by rutaecarpine in spontaneously hypertensive rats.[Pubmed: 18625276 ]|
|We have previously reported that Chinese traditional medicine Rutaecarpine (Rut) produced a sustained hypotensive effect in phenol-induced and two-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats. The aims of this study are to determine whether Rut could exert antihypertensive and anti-platelet effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and the underlying mechanisms.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
In vivo, SHR were given Rut and the blood pressure was monitored. Blood was collected for the measurements of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), tissue factor (TF) concentration and activity, and platelet aggregation, and the dorsal root ganglia were saved for examining CGRP expression. In vitro, the effects of Rut and CGRP on platelet aggregation were measured, and the effect of CGRP on platelet-derived TF release was also determined. Rut exerted a sustained hypotensive effect in SHR concomitantly with the increased synthesis and release of CGRP. The treatment of Rut also showed an inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation concomitantly with the decreased TF activity and TF antigen level in plasma. Study in vitro showed an inhibitory effect of Rut on platelet aggregation in the presence of thoracic aorta, which was abolished by capsazepine or CGRP(8-37), an antagonist of vanilloid receptor or CGRP receptor. Exogenous CGRP was able to inhibit both platelet aggregation and the release of platelet-derived TF, which were abolished by CGRP(8-37).
The results suggest that Rut exerts both antihypertensive and anti-platelet effects through stimulating the synthesis and release of CGRP in SHR, and CGRP-mediated anti-platelet effect is related to inhibiting the release of platelet-derived TF.
|Toxicol Lett. 2006 Jul 1;164(2):155-66. |
|Immunosuppressive effects of rutaecarpine in female BALB/c mice.[Pubmed: 16412592]|
|Rutaecarpine is a major quinazolinocarboline alkaloid isolated from Evodia rutaecarpa. It was reported to possess a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, such as vasodilation, antithrombosis, and anti-inflammation.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
In the present study, adverse effects of Rutaecarpine on immune functions were determined in female BALB/c mice. Rutaecarpine had no effects on hepatotoxicity parameters in mice, as measured by serum activities of aminotransferases. Meanwhile, Rutaecarpine significantly decreased the number of antibody-forming cells and caused weight decrease in spleen in a dose-dependent manner, when mice were administered with Rutaecarpine at 10mg/kg, 20mg/kg, 40 mg/kg or 80 cmg/kg once intravenously. In addition, Rutaecarpine administered mice exhibited reduced splenic cellularity, decreased numbers of total T cells, CD4(+) cells, CD8(+) cells, and B cells in spleen. IL-2, interferon-gamma and IL-10 mRNA expressions were suppressed significantly by Rutaecarpine treatment. The number of CD4(+)IL-2(+) cells was reduced significantly following administration of mice with Rutaecarpine. Furthermore, Rutaecarpine caused the cell cycle arrest in G(0)+G(1) phase in a dose-dependent manner. Rutaecarpine caused significant inductions of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A, 2B, and 2E1 activities dose-dependently. In the splenic lymphocyte proliferation assay, Rutaecarpine inhibited proliferation by LPS and Con A ex vivo, whereas it had no effects on in vitro proliferation.
These results suggested that a single bolus intravenous injection of Rutaecarpine from 20mg/kg might cause immunosuppressive effects, and that Rutaecarpine-induced immunosuppression might be mediated, at least in part, through the inhibition of cytokine production and cell cycle arrest in G(0)+G(1) phase, and caused possibly by mechanisms associated with metabolic activation.
|Inflamm Res. 1999 Dec;48(12):621-5. |
|A new class of COX-2 inhibitor, rutaecarpine from Evodia rutaecarpa.[Pubmed: 10669112 ]|
|We investigated the effect of a new class of COX-2 inhibitor, Rutaecarpine, on the production of PGD2 in bone marrow derived mast cells (BMMC) and PGE2 in COX-2 transfected HEK293 cells. Inflammation was induced by lambda-carrageenan in male Splague-Dawley (SD) rats.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Rutaecarpine (8,13-Dihydroindolo[2',3':3,4]pyridol[2,1-b]quinazolin -5(7H)-one) was isolated from the fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa. BMMC were cultured with WEHI-3 conditioned medium. c-Kit ligand and IL-10 were obtained by their expression in baculovirus.
The generation of PGD2 and PGE2 were determined by their assay kit. COX-1 and COX-2 protein and mRNA expression was determined by BMMC in the presence of KL, LPS and IL-10.
Rutaecarpine and indomethacin dissolved in 0.1% carboxymethyl cellulose was administered intraperitoneally and, 1 h later, lambda-carrageenan solution was injected to right hind paw of rats. Paw volumes were measured using plethysmometer 5 h after lambda-carrageenan injection.
Rutaecarpine inhibited COX-2 and COX-1 dependent phases of PGD2 generation in BMMC in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 of 0.28 microM and 8.7 microM, respectively. It inhibited COX-2-dependent conversion of exogenous arachidonic acid to PGE2 in a dose-dependent manner by the COX-2-transfected HEK293 cells. However, Rutaecarpine inhibited neither PLA2 and COX-1 activity nor COX-2 protein and mRNA expression up to the concentration of 30 microM in BMMC, indicating that Rutaecarpine directly inhibited COX-2 activity. Furthermore, Rutaecarpine showed in vivo anti-inflammatory activity on rat lambda-carrageenan induced paw edema by intraperitoneal administration.
Anti-inflammatory activity of Evodia rutaecarpa could be attributed at least in part by inhibition of COS-2.