|Description:||1. Taraxerol has potent anti-inflammatory effects,it downregulates the expression of proinflammatory mediators in macrophages by interfering with the activation of TAK1 and Akt, thus preventing NF-κB activation. |
2. Taraxerol can produce triterpenoid anti-cancer compound in Agrobacterium-transformed root cultures of butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L.).
3. Taraxerol can be used as a lipid biomarker for mangrove input to the SE Atlantic.
4. Taraxerol has inhibitory effects on AGS cell growth through inducing G2/M arrest and promotion of cell apoptosis, taraxeryl acetate has less effect on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of AGS cells than taraxerol.
|Targets:||NO | PGE | TNF-α | IL Receptor | NF-kB | TGF-β/Smad | Akt|
|Source:||The herb of Taraxacum mongolicum Hand. Mazz.|
|Solvent:||Chloroform, Dichloromethane, Ethyl Acetate, DMSO, Acetone, etc.|
|Storage:||Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: firstname.lastname@example.org
|After receiving:||The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.|
|1 mg||5 mg||10 mg||20 mg||25 mg|
|1 mM||2.3436 mL||11.7178 mL||23.4357 mL||46.8713 mL||58.5892 mL|
|5 mM||0.4687 mL||2.3436 mL||4.6871 mL||9.3743 mL||11.7178 mL|
|10 mM||0.2344 mL||1.1718 mL||2.3436 mL||4.6871 mL||5.8589 mL|
|50 mM||0.0469 mL||0.2344 mL||0.4687 mL||0.9374 mL||1.1718 mL|
|100 mM||0.0234 mL||0.1172 mL||0.2344 mL||0.4687 mL||0.5859 mL|
Nat Prod Commun. 2013 Oct;8(10):1371-2.
|A new taraxerol derivative from the roots of Microcos tomentosa.[Pubmed: 24354177]|
|A new 3beta-O-vanilloyl-Taraxerol, microcisin (1) and eight known compounds, 3beta-Taraxerol acetate (2), 3beta-Taraxerol (3), cholest-4-en-3-one (4), cholest-4-en-6beta-ol-3-one (5), beta-sitosterol (6), 7-hydroxycadalene (7), mellein (8) and vanillin (9), were isolated from the roots of Microcos tomentosa. The structures were determined by extensive analysis of their spectroscopic data. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against KB and HeLa cells.|
Int Immunopharmacol. 2013 Feb;15(2):316-24.
|Taraxerol inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory responses through suppression of TAK1 and Akt activation.[Pubmed: 23333629]|
|Taraxerol, a triterpenoid compound, has potent anti-inflammatory effects. However, the molecular mechanisms are not clear. In the study, Taraxerol concentration dependently inhibited nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at the protein and mRNA levels and these inhibitions decreased the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin 2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β induced by LPS. Furthermore, we found that Taraxerol suppressed translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), phosphorylation of IκBα, blocked the IκBα degradation as well as IKK and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation by inactivation of TGF-β-activated kinase-1 (TAK1) and Akt. In addition, Taraxerol significantly inhibited the formation of TAK1/TAK-binding protein1 (TAB1), which was accompanied by inducing degradation of TAK1, decreasing LPS-induced polyubiquitination of TAK1 as well as TAK1 phosphorylation. Taken together, our data suggest that Taraxerol downregulates the expression of proinflammatory mediators in macrophages by interfering with the activation of TAK1 and Akt, thus preventing NF-κB activation.|
Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2012 Oct;168(3):487-503.
|Production of triterpenoid anti-cancer compound taraxerol in Agrobacterium-transformed root cultures of butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L.).[Pubmed: 22843061]|
|Independent transformed root somaclones (rhizoclones) of butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L.) were established using explant co-cultivation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Rhizoclones capable of sustained growth were maintained under low illumination in auxin-free agar-solidified MS medium through subcultures at periodic intervals. Integration of T(L)-DNA rolB gene in the transformed rhizoclone genome was verified by Southern blot hybridization, and the transcript expression of T(R)-DNA ags and man2 genes was ascertained by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. The major compound isolated and purified from the transformed root extracts was identified as the pentacyclic triterpenoid compound Taraxerol using IR, (1)H-NMR, and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. The Taraxerol yield in cultured hairy roots, as quantified by HPTLC analysis, was up to 4-fold on dry weight basis compared to that in natural roots. Scanning of bands from cultured transformed roots and natural roots gave super-imposable spectra with standard Taraxerol, suggesting a remarkable homology in composition. To date, this is the first report claiming production of the cancer therapeutic phytochemical Taraxerol in genetically transformed root cultures as a viable alternative to in vivo roots of naturally occurring plant species.|
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2011 Jun;9(6):638-42.
|[Effects of taraxerol and taraxerol acetate on cell cycle and apoptosis of human gastric epithelial cell line AGS].[Pubmed: 21669168]|
|OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of Taraxerol and Taraxerol acetate on cell cycle and apoptosis of human gastric epithelial cell line AGS cells. METHODS: The inhibitory effects of Taraxerol and Taraxerol acetate at different concentrations on AGS cell growth were measured by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method and the concentrations of Taraxerol and Taraxerol acetate to be used in following experiments were decided. Then, cell cycle analysis was performed by FACScan flow cytometry after culture with Taraxerol or Taraxerol acetate. Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining was used to measure cell apoptosis. RESULTS: Taraxerol significantly inhibited AGS cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Taraxerol arrested the AGS cells at G(2)/M stage. 110 μmol/L Taraxerol elevated the population of AGS cells arrested in G(2)/M phase compared with solvent (P<0.05). Taraxerol also promoted early cell apoptosis in AGS cells. 110 μmol/L Taraxerol increased the early cell apoptosis rate from 4.45% to 10.29%, which was 1.31 times higher than that of the untreated cells. However, Taraxerol acetate had a lower inhibitory effect than Taraxerol, and it showed a tendency of G(2)/M arrest and apoptosis promotion but with no statistical significance (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Taraxerol has inhibitory effects on AGS cell growth through inducing G(2)/M arrest and promotion of cell apoptosis. Taraxerol acetate has less effect on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of AGS cells than Taraxerol.|
Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac., 2004, 68(3): 411-22.
|Taraxerol and Rhizophora pollen as proxies for tracking past mangrove ecosystems 1 1 Associate editor: R. Summons[Reference: WebLink]|
|Together with the observation that Rhizophora mangle and Rhizophora racemosa leaves are extraordinarily rich in Taraxerol, this strongly indicates that Taraxerol can be used as a lipid biomarker for mangrove input to the SE Atlantic. The proxy-environment relations for Taraxerol and Rhizophora pollen down-core show that increased Taraxerol and Rhizophora pollen abundances occur during transgressions and periods with a humid climate. These environmental changes modify the coastal erosion and sedimentation patterns, enhancing the extent of the mangrove ecosystem and/or the transport of mangrove organic matter offshore.|