|Description:||1. Taurine, a free β-amino acid with remarkable antioxidant activity, is used in Taurine-enriched beverages to boost the muscular power of athletes. |
2. Taurine can attenuate nandrolone decanoate-induced poor sperm quality and testicular toxicity in rats.
3. Taurine can effectively promote chondrocyte growth and enhance accumulation of glycosaminoglycans and collagens in the conditioned media of chondrocytes, it is effective in proliferation promotion and phenotype maintenance of chondrocytes, thus, taurine may be a useful pro-chondrogenic agent for autologous chondrocyte implantation in the treatment of cartilage repair.
|Targets:||TNF-α | Caspase | MMP(e.g.TIMP) | Calcium Channel | ATPase | Estrogen receptor | Progestogen receptor|
|Source:||From Macrocallista nimbosa|
|Solvent:||DMSO, Pyridine, Methanol, Ethanol, etc.|
|Storage:||Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
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|After receiving:||The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.|
|1 mg||5 mg||10 mg||20 mg||25 mg|
|1 mM||7.9904 mL||39.9521 mL||79.9041 mL||159.8082 mL||199.7603 mL|
|5 mM||1.5981 mL||7.9904 mL||15.9808 mL||31.9616 mL||39.9521 mL|
|10 mM||0.799 mL||3.9952 mL||7.9904 mL||15.9808 mL||19.976 mL|
|50 mM||0.1598 mL||0.799 mL||1.5981 mL||3.1962 mL||3.9952 mL|
|100 mM||0.0799 mL||0.3995 mL||0.799 mL||1.5981 mL||1.9976 mL|
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2015 Feb 1;282(3):285-96.
|Amelioration of nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats by taurine: effects on steroidogenesis, redox and inflammatory cascades, and intrinsic apoptotic pathway.[Pubmed: 25542992]|
|Taurine; a free β-amino acid with remarkable antioxidant activity, is used in Taurine-enriched beverages to boost the muscular power of athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of the possible protective effects of Taurine on nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats. To achieve this aim, male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four groups and administered either vehicle, nandrolone decanoate (10mg/kg/week, I.M.), Taurine (100mg/kg/day, p.o.) or combination of Taurine and nandrolone decanoate, for 8 successive weeks. Results of the present study showed that Taurine reversed nandrolone decanoate-induced perturbations in sperm characteristics, normalized serum testosterone level, and restored the activities of the key steroidogenic enzymes; 3β-HSD, and 17β-HSD. Moreover, Taurine prevented nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular toxicity and DNA damage by virtue of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. This was evidenced by Taurine-induced modulation of testicular LDH-x activity, redox markers (MDA, NO, GSH contents, and SOD activity), inflammatory indices (TNF-α, ICAM-1 levels, and MMP-9 gene expression), intrinsic apoptotic pathway (cytochrome c gene expression and caspase-3 content), and oxidative DNA damage markers (8-OHdG level and comet assay). In conclusion, at the biochemical and histological levels, Taurine attenuated nandrolone decanoate-induced poor sperm quality and testicular toxicity in rats.|
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2015 Feb 1;308(3):H232-9.
|Role of protein phosphorylation in excitation-contraction coupling in taurine deficient hearts.[Pubmed: 25437920]|
|Taurine is a beta-amino acid found in very high concentration in the heart.There is also evidence that Taurine directly alters the Ca(2+) sensitivity of myofibrillar proteins.Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that Taurine deficiency leads to alterations in SR Ca(2+) ATPase activity related to reduced phospholamban phosphorylation and expression of SERCA2a. Taurine transporter knockout (TauTKO) hearts also exhibited a rightward shift in the Ca(2+) dependence of the myofibrillar Ca(2+) ATPase, a property that is associated with an elevation in phosphorylated troponin I. The findings support the observation that Taurine deficient hearts develop systolic and diastolic defects related to reduced SR Ca(2+) ATPase activity, a change mediated in part by reduced phospholamban phosphorylation.|
Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2015 Jan;67(1):13-20.
|The effects of taurine on vigabatrin, high light intensity and mydriasis induced retinal toxicity in the pigmented rat.[Pubmed: 25446799]|
|The overall purpose of this study was to establish a model that may be used for examining the effect of Vigabatrin-induced retinal toxicity in pigmented rats, and subsequently examine the possible effects of Taurine on the retinal toxicity.In addition, selected groups of animals were administered Taurine via the drinking water (20 mg/ml), resulting in systemic Taurine concentrations of approximately threefold the endogenous concentration. Administration of Taurine did not alleviate the Vigabatrin-induced retinal toxicity, as demonstrated either functionally by ERG or morphologically, although systemic concentrations of 3-fold the endogenous levels were reached, and it was thus not possible to demonstrate a protective effect of Taurine in these pigmented animals.|
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2015 Feb 15;308(4):G277-86.
|Estradiol decreases taurine level by reducing cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase via the estrogen receptor-α in female mice liver.[Pubmed: 25394658]|
|Cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSAD) and cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) are two rate-limiting enzymes in Taurine de novo synthesis, and their expressions are associated with estrogen concentration. The present study was designed to determine the relationship between 17β-estradiol (E₂) and Taurine in female mice liver. We initially observed the mice had lower levels of CSAD, CDO, and Taurine during estrus than diestrus. We then, respectively, treated the ovariectomized mice, the cultured hepatocytes, and Hep G2 cells with different doses of E₂, and the CSAD and CDO expressions and Taurine levels were analyzed. The results showed that E₂ decreased Taurine level in the serum and the cultured cells by inhibiting CSAD and CDO expressions. Furthermore, we identified the molecular receptor types through which E₂ plays its role in regulating Taurine synthesis, and our results showed that estrogen receptor-α (ERα) expression was much higher than estrogen receptor-β (ERβ) in the liver and hepatocytes, and the inhibiting effects of E₂ on CSAD, CDO, and Taurine level were partially abrogated in the ICI-182,780-pretreated liver and hepatocytes, and in ERα knockout mice. These results indicate that estradiol decreases Taurine content by reducing Taurine biosynthetic enzyme expression in mice liver.|
Tohoku J Exp Med. 2015;235(3):201-13.
|Chondroprotective effects of taurine in primary cultures of human articular chondrocytes.[Pubmed: 25765089]|
|We explored the effect of Taurine (2-aminoethane sulfonic acid) on proliferation and phenotype maintenance of human articular chondrocytes by analyzing the cell proliferation, morphology, viability, and expression of cartilage specific mRNAs and proteins. Primary chondrocytes were isolated from human articular cartilage tissues. Results showed that Taurine effectively promoted chondrocyte growth and enhanced accumulation of glycosaminoglycans and collagens in the conditioned media of chondrocytes. Moreover, Taurine exposure caused significant increases in the relative expression levels of mRNAs for cartilage specific markers, including aggrecan, collagen type II and SOX9. Aggrecan is a cartilage-specific proteoglycan, and SOX9 is a chondrogenic transcription factor. In contrast, the mRNA expression of collagen type I, a marker for chondrocyte dedifferentiation, was significantly decreased in cells treated with Taurine, indicating that Taurine inhibits the chondrocyte dedifferentiation. This study reveals that Taurine is effective in proliferation promotion and phenotype maintenance of chondrocytes. Thus, Taurine may be a useful pro-chondrogenic agent for autologous chondrocyte implantation in the treatment of cartilage repair.|