|Source:||From Zygosaccharomyces priorianus.|
|Biological Activity or Inhibitors:||1. Tryptophol can inhibit the infection/replication of GVE2 by interacting with the host's Clp protease.
2. Tryptophol induces apoptosis through DR5 and that the resistance of PBL to Tryptophol-induced apoptosis might be due to competition from DcR1.
|Solvent:||Chloroform, Dichloromethane, Ethyl Acetate, DMSO, Acetone, etc.|
|Storage:||Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: email@example.com
|After receiving:||The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.|
|1 mg||5 mg||10 mg||20 mg||25 mg|
|1 mM||6.2035 mL||31.0174 mL||62.0347 mL||124.0695 mL||155.0868 mL|
|5 mM||1.2407 mL||6.2035 mL||12.4069 mL||24.8139 mL||31.0174 mL|
|10 mM||0.6203 mL||3.1017 mL||6.2035 mL||12.4069 mL||15.5087 mL|
|50 mM||0.1241 mL||0.6203 mL||1.2407 mL||2.4814 mL||3.1017 mL|
|100 mM||0.062 mL||0.3102 mL||0.6203 mL||1.2407 mL||1.5509 mL|
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2015 May 21.
|The effect of tryptophol on the bacteriophage infection in high-temperature environment.[Pubmed: 25994257]|
|Metabolites Tryptophol, adenine, and hydroxybenzylalcohol were significantly elevated in Geobacillus sp. E263 in response to the GVE2 infection. Furthermore, our data indicated that Tryptophol was involved in the bacteriophage infection. Tryptophol could inhibit the infection/replication of GVE2 by interacting with the host's Clp protease. Therefore, our study revealed novel aspects of metabolites during the bacteriophage infection in high-temperature environment.|
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2007 Aug;71(8):2065-8.
|Tryptophol induces death receptor (DR) 5-mediated apoptosis in U937 cells.[Pubmed: 17690453]|
|Tryptophol is a natural component isolated from vinegar produced from the boiled extract of black soybean. We have reported that Tryptophol induces apoptosis in U937 cells via activation of caspase-8 followed by caspase-3. Tryptophol, however, did not affect human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). In this study, we found that Tryptophol enhances formation of a death-inducing signaling complex including death receptor (DR) 5. Cell viability and induction of apoptosis by Tryptophol was reduced by transfection with decoy receptor (DcR) 1. These results indicate that Tryptophol induces apoptosis through DR5 and that the resistance of PBL to Tryptophol-induced apoptosis might be due to competition from DcR1.|
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2008 May;102(5):443-52.
|Genotoxicity of tryptophol in a battery of short-term assays on human white blood cells in vitro.[Pubmed: 18248512]|
|The genotoxic effects of Tryptophol (indole-3-ethanol), an aromatic alcohol and known secondary metabolite of the opportunistic yeast Candida albicans and other Candida spp. The results obtained suggest cytotoxic, cytostatic and genotoxic effects of the Tryptophol treatment in vitro that were mainly dose-dependent. The type and the extent of DNA lesions detected in Tryptophol-treated samples indicate the possibility that observed damage is mediated by highly reactive aldehyde metabolite and/or free radicals produced by treatment. The results show that mortality of lymphocytes in Tryptophol-treated samples was primarily caused by apoptosis. The generation of additional DNA strand breaks and cytogenetic consequences (chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges and micronuclei), as observed in this study, sustain the possibility that Tryptophol toxicity is mediated by the formation of DNA cross-links and aldehyde-protein adducts. In conclusion, this preliminary study elucidates only a part of Tryptophol toxicity to human cells. Because current evidence is not sufficient to obtain information relevant for human risk assessment, further in vitro and in vivo studies are essential in order to clarify remaining issues, especially to elucidate the exact mechanisms and nature of the damage produced following treatment as well to estimate possible interindividual variability in genotoxic responses to the chemical.|