1. Acetylshikonin exhibits weak cytotoxicity against human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with IC50 of over 20 microM, exhibits the antiangiogenic and antitumorigenic effects by suppressing proliferation and angiogenic factors.
2. Acetylshikonin inhibits the generation of NADPH oxidase complex in the activation of respiratory burst of PMNs, but does not directly inhibit the activity of NADPH oxidase already generated.
3. Certain shikonin derivatives(such as Acetyl shikonin) act as modulators of the Nur77-mediated apoptotic pathway and identify a new shikonin-based lead that targets Nur77 for apoptosis induction.
4. Acetylshikonin, shikonin, and alkannin have accelerative effect on the proliferation of granulation tissue in rats.
5. Acetylshikonin has inhibitory effect on the edematous response is due neither to the release of steroid hormones from the adrenal gland nor to the glucocorticoid activity, but probably partly to the suppression of mast cell degranulation and partly to protection of the vasculature from mediator challenge.
6. Acetylshikonin induces apoptosis of hepatitis B virus X protein-expressing human hepatocellular carcinoma cells via endoplasmic reticulum stress.
1. Acetylshikonin (ASK), a derivate of shikonin, can effectively inhibit tumor cells.
2. Acetylshikonin can be used to treat hepatocellular carcinoma cells expressing hepatitis B virus X protein (HBX) by inducing ER stress , an oncoprotein from hepatitis B virus.
3. Acetylshikonin exhibits the most potent antiapoptosis activity through the inhibition of the generation of reactive oxygen species as well as protection of the loss of mitochondria membrane potential.
4. Acetylshikonin inhibits the production of eicosanoid, is due to the attenuation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) membrane recruitment via the decrease in [Ca(2+)](i) and to the blockade of cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase activity.
1. Aconine is the febrifuge.
2. Aconine possesses gastric anaesthetic props.
1. Aconitine (AC), an active/toxic alkaloid from Aconitum species, is commonly present in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) prescriptions because of the great effectiveness of Aconitum for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, and tumors in clinic.
1. Acteoside has antimicrobial activity.
2. Acteoside has neuroprotective activity, can promote nerve growth factor and tropomycin receptor kinase A expression.
3. Acteoside has anti-inflammatory activity, is a specific regulator of MDM2 activation in TSLP-stimulated mast cells, which indicates its potential use for the treatment of mast cell-mediated inflammatory diseases.
4. Acteoside has antioxidant activity, can protect the cells from X‑ray induced damage through enhancing the scavenging activity of ROS, decreasing the Bax/Bcl‑2 ratio and downregulating the activity of procaspase‑3, as well as modulating the mitogen‑activated protein kinase signaling pathways.
1. Adenanthin has bacteriostatic activity.
2. Adenanthin has antiinflammatory activity.
3. Adenanthin has antitumour activity .
4. Adenanthin is a novel NF-κB and nucleophilic cysteines inhibitor.
5. Adenanthin has antileukemic activity through targeting peroxiredoxin I/II.
6. Adenanthin can serve as the development of Prx I– and Prx II–targeted therapeutic agents.
1. Adenosine induces SphK1 activity in human and mouse sickle and normal erythrocytes in vitro.
2. Adenosine can activate the neuroimmune system, alter neuronal function and neurotransmission,and contribute to symptoms of sickness and psychopathologies, .
3. Adenosine activates mast cells have been long implicated in allergic asthma and studies in rodent mast cells have assigned the A3 Adenosine receptor (A3R) a primary role in mediating Adenosine responses.
1. Afzelin has antibacterial activity.
2. Afzelin promotes cytotoxic effect.
3. Afzelin effectively treats asthma is based on reduction of Th2 cytokine via inhibition of GATA‑binding protein 3 transcription factor, which is the master regulator of Th2 cytokine differentiation and production.
4. Afzelin has several cellular activities such as DNA-protective, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory as well as UV-absorbing activity and may protect human skin from UVB-induced damage by a combination of UV-absorbing and cellular activities.
1. Agnuside has anti-arthritic activity.
2. Agnuside shows inhibition of vascular permeability and leukocyte migration in vivo.
1. Ailanthone has high toxicity.
2. Ailanthone has significant pre-emergence herbicide activity , is directly correlated to Ailanthone concentration.