1. 1-Dehydro-6-gingerdione is 5-HT1A receptor partial agonists.
2. 1-Dehydro-6-gingerdione has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.
3. 1-Dehydro-6-gingerdione significantly suppresses the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) proteins in a concentration-dependent fashion.
1. 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), a potent glucosidase inhibitor, is beneficial for the suppression of abnormally high blood glucose levels and thereby prevention of diabetes mellitus, suggests that the newly developed DNJ-enriched powder can be used as a dietary supplement for preventing diabetes mellitus.
2. 1-Deoxynojirimycin impairs oligosaccharide processing of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor and inhibits its secretion in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes.
3. 1-Deoxynojirimycin as a therapeutic agent by controlling the overgrowth and biofilm formation of S. mutans.
4. 1-Deoxynojirimycin can block human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein- mediated membrane fusion at the CXCR4 binding step.
1. 2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol is a potent specific inhibitor of lipoxygenase activities, it inhibits platelet 12-LO activity (IC50, 4.2 microM) and PMNL 5-LO activity (IC50, 13 microM) but not cyclooxygenase activity in cell-free conditions; it also inhibits 12-LO activity in intact platelets (IC50, 50 microM) and reduces leukotriene B4 production in intact PMNL stimulated by A23187 (IC50, 26 microM).
2. Hydroxytyrosol (2-(3,4dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol has antioxidant properties.
1. 2α,3α,24-Trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, a triterpenoid phytoalexin, isolated from peel of unripe fruits of nectarine (Prunus persica cv Fantasia), shows antifungal activity against the fungus mentioned.
2. 2α,3α,24-Trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid shows in vitro cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines including PLC,Hep3B,HepG2,HeLa,SW480,MCF-7 and Bel7402.
1. 2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxyldiphenylethylene-2-O-glucoside(TSG) blocks the proliferation of PASMCs induced by PDGF-BB through arresting the cell cycle in G0 / G1 phase, indicates that TSG suppress PDGF-BB-induced PASMCs proliferation is associated with an inhibition of AKT / GSK3β signaling pathways.
2. TSG not only prevents over-expression of α-synuclein at an early stage, but also reverses the increased expression of α-synuclein and inhibits the aggregation at the late stage of Tg mice, it may have potential to the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's diseases.
3. TGS, emodin and physcion have the lipid regulation activity to an overall synergy.
1. 20(R)-Ginsenoside Rg3 has anti-aging and antifatigue activities.
2. 20(R)-Ginsenoside Rg3 shows significant effect on the differential expression of cell signaling genes and other related genes in human lung cell line A549.
3. 20(R)-Ginsenoside Rg3 and PEG-PLGA-Rg3 nanoparticles can supress the tumor angiogenesis in vivo,which is perhaps related to the inhibition of expression in MMP-9,HIF-1α,VEGF,IL-1,IL-6 and TNF-α.
4. 20(R)-Ginsenoside Rg3 has anticarcinogenic effects on Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Rats.
5. 20(R)-Ginsenoside Rg3 elicits a significant inhibition of in vitro cell adhesion and invasion of U87 cells, is attributed to its decreasing the enzymatic activity of MMP-2.
6. 20(R)-Ginsenoside Rg3 can restrain A549/DDP cell invasion and metastasis,and it may have relationship with the upregulation of nm23;Rg3 can enhance the A549/DDP cell chemosensitivity to cisplatin,and it may have relationship with the upregulation of caspase-3 and the cell membrane lipid fluidity decreased.
7. 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3 exerts a neuroprotective effect on a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia.
1. 20(R)-Ginsenoside Rh2, a minor stereoisomer of ginsenoside Rh2, possesses matrix metalloproteinase inhibitory.
2. 20(R)-Ginsenoside Rh2 has a significant inhibitory effect on the proliferation.
3. 20(R)-Ginsenoside Rh2 has anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities.
4. 20(R)-Ginsenoside Rh2 shows selective osteoclastgenesis inhibitory activity without any cytotoxicity up to 100 microM.
5. 20 (R)-ginsenoside Rh2 and 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh2 have anticancer effects and can increase inchoate apoptotic rate, reduce apoptotic rate significantly, enhance the activity of caspase-3 and induces apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.
1. Ginsenoside Rh2 can suppress RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in vitro and in vivo through the regulation of c-Fos and NFATc1 expressions, not excluding the involvement of NF-κB and ERK, it is also suggested to be developed as a therapeutic drug for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
2. Ginsenoside Rh2 has antitumor, antidiabetic, antiallergic, and anti-inflammatory effects.
3. Ginsenoside Rh2 potently protects ischemia-reperfusion brain injury, also inhibits prostaglandin-E_2 synthesis in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, suggests it can improve ischemic brain injury.
4. Ginsenoside Rh2 potently reverses memory impairment caused by scopolamine, it may improve learning deficits, also have the memory-enhancing effects of RGB.
5. Ginsenoside Rh2 can suppress growth of uterine leiomyoma in vitro and in vivo and may regulate ERα/c-Src/p38 MAPK activity.
6. Ginsenoside Rh2 can inhibit the tendency of apoptosis, and reverse the impaired β-cell growth potential by modulating Akt/Foxo1/PDX-1 signaling pathway and regulating cell cycle proteins, suggests its therapeutic potential in the treatment of diabetes.
1. 20-Hydroxyecdysone slowly reduces food consumption and then indirectly induces a state of starvation resulting in the elevation of the mRNA levels of InR , IRS , PI3K110 , and PDK in the Bombyx fat body during molting and pupation, and 20-hydroxyecdysone inhibits innate immunity in the fat body during Bombyx postembryonic development.
2. 20-Hydroxyecdysone as ingredients in nutritional supplements for various sports, particularly bodybuilding.
3. 20-Hydroxyecdysone induces autophagy and caspase activity, predominantly transduced by E93 in the remodeling fat body of Drosophila.
4. 20-Hydroxyecdysone (via GPCR activation and calcium signaling) activates CaMKII phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, which regulate USP1 lysine acetylation to form an EcRB1-USP1 complex for 20E response gene transcription.
5. 20-Hydroxyecdysone acts as both a positive and a negative regulator of EDG transcription, sequences in the promoter regions of two of the EDGs are similar to an ecdysone response element and may play a role in negative regulation.
1. Ginsenoside Rg2 can protect H9c2 cells against H2O2- induced injury through its actions of anti-oxidant and anti-apoptosis.
2. Ginsenoside Rg2 suppresses the hepatic glucose production via AMPK-induced phosphorylation of GSK3βand induction of SHP gene expression, it may have a therapeutic potential for type 2 diabetic patients.
3. 20R-Ginsenoside Rg2 inhibits the cytokine interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1α)-induced reduction in gap junction-mediated intercellular communication (GJIC).