1. 12-Hydroxyjasmonic acid glucoside is a COI1-JAZ-independent activator of leaf-closing movement in samanea saman.
Cytisine is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, has been widely used for central nervous system (CNS) diseases treatment. It is a partial agonist at alpha4/beta2 nAChRs, and a full agonist at alpha3/beta4 and alpha7 nAChRs, has antidepressant-like properties in several rodent models of antidepressant efficacy.
1. Cycloastragenol and astragaloside IV can suppress ROS-associated ER stress and then inhibit TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation with regulation of AMPK activity, and thereby ameliorate endothelial dysfunction by inhibiting inflammation and reducing cell apoptosis.
2. Cycloastragenol stimulates telomerase activity in human neonatal keratinocytes and rat neuronal cells, and induces CREB activation followed by tert and bcl2 expression, cycloastragenol may have a novel therapeutic role in depression.
3. Cycloastragenol can suppress the accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid droplet in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
4. Cycloastragenol and astragaloside IV have been shown to improve the proliferative response of CD8+ T lymphocytes from HIV-infected patients by upregulating telomerase activity, they also may exert their cellular effects through the activation of the Src/MEK/ERK pathway.
5. Cycloastragenol can remarkably inhibit CYP3A4 and activate CYP2E1 in rats.
6. Cycloastragenol has been shown to extend T cell proliferation by increasing telomarase activity showing that it may also help delay the onset of cellular aging; it is an extraordinary wound healing agent; it inhibits the apoptosis of PC12 induced by 6-OHDA, may be as potential neuroprotective agents in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
Phytol, a diterpene alcohol from chlorophyll widely used as a food additive and in medicinal fields, shows antinociceptive, antioxidant ,anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antileishmanial, cytotoxicity and antiallergic effects. It is a specific activator of PPARα, it interacts with GABAA receptor, probably at the receptor subtypes that mediate benzodiazepines effects. Phytol attenuates the inflammatory response by inhibiting neutrophil migration that is partly caused by reduction in IL-1β and TNF-α levels and oxidative stress.
1. Evofolin B exhibits quinone reductase (QR) inducing activity, with observed CD (concentration required to double induction) values of 16.4 microM.