Rhein has many pharmacological effects, including epatoprotective, nephroprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, and antimicrobial activities, it has been proved effective in treatment of experimental diabetic nephropathy , one of the mechanism is the Inhibition of the hexosamine pathway. Rhein has protective effect on liver injury, the mechanisms possibly contribute to its action of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, also associated with its effect of inhibiting TGF-β1 and suppressing the activation of hepatic stellate cells.
Ruscogenin exerts significant anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic activities.Ruscogenin significantly attenuates LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI )via inhibiting expressions of TF and iNOS and NF-κB p65 activation, it inhibits activation of neutrophil through cPLA 2 , PAK, Akt, MAPKs, cAMP, and PKA signaling pathways.
Lovastatin is an inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase with IC50 of 3.4 nM in a cell-free assay, has a direct cellular effect independent of a cholesterol-lowering effect and delays the onset and progression of diabetic nephropathy. It has a potential application to treat PD via antioxidant effect, and it promotes fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition, by regulating the production of CCN2 in human gingival fibroblasts.
Morroniside has therapeutic effects on diabetic angiopathies, renal damage, lipid metabolism and inflammation and bone resorption. Morroniside can notably protect the brain from damage induced by focal cerebral ischemia which might be related to morroniside antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties in the brain.Morroniside can decrease the level of cycloxygenase(Cox) and it may be the mechanism of morroniside on inhibiting the platelet aggregation induced by ADP in rabbits.
Astilbin has insecticidal, antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities, it may act as an efficient therapeutic agent for arthritis like cyclosporine A but with less toxicity, its mechanism includes a selective suppression on lymphocyte functions via reducing MMP and NO production. Astilbin can exert an early renal protective role to diabetic nephropathy (DN), inhibit production of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF).Astilbin also alleviates contact hypersensitivity through a unique mechanism involving a negative cytokine regulation through stimulating IL-10, which is distinct from the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A.