1. Cuniloside B shows anti-leishmanial activity.
1. Camaric acid, lantanilic acid, and oleanolic acid possess nematicidal activity, they exhibit 95%, 98% and 70% mortality respectively against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita at 0.5% concentration.
2. Camaric acid shows antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant S. aureus with IC50 values 8.74 and 8.09 uM, respectively, it also shows moderate antileishmanial activity and highly potent antitrypanosomal activity.
3. Camaric acid shows anticancer activity.
4. Camaric acid shows significant topical anti-inflammatory activity with IC50 value of 0.67 mg/ear in the assay of TPA mouse ear oedema model.
Linalool, is a competitive antagonist of NMDA receptors, which has anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, anti-anxiety, local anaesthetic, anti-leishmanicidal, and insecticidal properties. Linalool has dose-dependent marked sedative effects at the central nervous system (CNS), including hypnotic, anticonvulsant and hypothermic properties, it also has an inhibitory effect on the acetylcholine (ACh) release and on the channel open time in the mouse neuromuscular junction. The purified linalool fraction is only inhibitory for C. albicans.
Phytol, a diterpene alcohol from chlorophyll widely used as a food additive and in medicinal fields, shows antinociceptive, antioxidant ,anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antileishmanial, cytotoxicity and antiallergic effects. It is a specific activator of PPARα, it interacts with GABAA receptor, probably at the receptor subtypes that mediate benzodiazepines effects. Phytol attenuates the inflammatory response by inhibiting neutrophil migration that is partly caused by reduction in IL-1β and TNF-α levels and oxidative stress.
1. Simiarenol may have in vitro leishmanicidal activity against Leishmania donovani promastigotes.