1. Marmin can inhibit contraction of the guinea-pig tracheal smooth muscle, especially by interfering histamine receptor, inhibiting the histamine release from mast, inhibiting intracellular Ca2+ release from the intracellular store and the Ca2+ influx through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels.
2. Marmin, skimmianine, aegeline, aurapten, zeorin, and dustanin are potential to develop as antihistamine agents, especially as histamine H1 receptor antagonists by interacting with amino acid residues, Asp107, Lys179, Lys191, Asn198, and Trp428 of histamine H1 receptor.
3. S-trans-Marmin shows potent antibacterial, fungicidal, and algicidal properties.
4. Marmin shows a cell-growth inhibitory effect against L1210 and K562 in vitro.
5. Marmin and nobiletin have anti-ulcer effects, which are ascribed primarily to the maintenance of the mucosal barrier integrity and inhibition of gastric motor activity and secondarily due to the prevention of the effects of endogenous acetylcholine and histamine.
Gentiopicroside has been developed into a novel traditional Chinese drug named gentiopicroside injection, and it was approved for the treatment of acute jaundice and chronic active hepatitis by SFDA.Gentiopicroside has analgesic, smooth muscle relaxing, antibacterial, and free radical scavenging activities, it exerts anti-inflammatory effects on experimental acute colitis through attenuating the expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, iNOS and COX-2.
1. Cytochalasin D-induced extension of neurite-like processes might correlate with enhanced accumulation of PrPres.
2. Cytochalasin D is an actin inhibitor, the removal of actin stress fibers is crucial for the chondrogenic differentiation.
3. Cytochalasin D inhibits CT26 tumor growth potentially through inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of cell apoptosis and suppression of tumor angiogenesis.
4. Cytochalasin D stimulates the expression of TF in B16 melanoma cells, activating both coagulation-dependent and -independent pathways via binding to FVIIa, eventually promoting lung metastasis.
5. Cytochalasin D inhibits smooth muscle contraction by directly inhibiting contractile apparatus.
6. Cytochalasin D is an inhibitor of microfilament-dependent phagocytosis, it (0.5 or 1.0 micrograms/ml) can inhibit intracellular multiplication of L. pneumophila in U937 monocytes.
7. Cytochalasin D may be an inhibitor of some fertilization processes such as sperm penetration or sperm head decondensation.
1. Allocryptopine and protopine increase mRNA levels of cytochromes P450 1A in human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells independently of AhR.
2. Allocryptopine induces a relaxing effect on the ileum by inhibiting phosphodiesterase enzyme, and thus elevating cellular cAMP and its contractile effect on the urinary bladder by affecting alpha-adrenergic receptors in this tissue.
3. Allocryptopine and benzyltetrahydropalmatine can block human ether-a-go-go related gene (hERG) potassium channels expressed in HEK293 cells.
4. Allocryptopine has certain effects on anti-injury for hepatocyte, ameliorating liver function, and prohibiting hepatic fibrosis.
Scopolamine butylbromide is a competitive antagonist of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) with an IC50 of 55.3 ± 4.3 nM, it possesses anticholinergic, and anti-tumor effects, it used as an abdominal-specific antispasmodic agent. Scopolamine butylbromide is effective in preventing succinylcholine-induced bradycardia in infants and children.