Alpha-lipoic acid has become a common ingredient in multivitamin formulas, anti-aging supplements, and even pet food, it is well-defined as a therapy for preventing diabetic polyneuropathies, and scavenges free radicals, chelates metals, and restores intracellular glutathione levels which otherwise decline with age. Alpha-lipoic acid has therapeutic effects on joint inflammation and erosion in an animal model via NF-kappa B down regulation, it inhibits TNF-alpha induced NF-kappa B activation through blocking of MEKK1-MKK4-IKK signaling cascades. Lipoic acid is a novel treatment for Alzheimer's disease and related dementias.
Yohimbine hydrochloride is an alpha 2-adrenoreceptor antagonist, blocking the pre- and postsynaptic alpha-2 adrenoreceptors and causing an increased release of noradrenaline and dopamine.It is an antagonist to xylazine hydrochloride-ketamine hydrochloride immobilization of white-tailed deer. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of impotence. It is also alleged to be an aphrodisiac.
Protodioscin has been shown to exhibit multiple biological actions, such as anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-cancer, sexual effects and cardiovascular properties. It appears to possess aphrodisiac activity probably due to its androgen increasing property, it will be useful in developing health food supplement(s) and/or drug(s) against hyperlipidemia.
Lucidone possesses hepatoprotective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, it-mediated up-regulation of phase-II enzymes and HO-1 via Nrf-2 signaling pathway may provide a pivotal mechanism for its hepatoprotective action. Dietary intake of lucidone alleviates high fat diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice and reveals the potential of lucidone as a nutraceutical to prevent obesity and consequent metabolic disorders. Lucidone accelerates wound healing through the cooperation of keratinocyte/fibroblast/ ndothelial cell growth and migration and macrophage inflammation via PI3K/AKT, Wnt/β-catenin and NF-κB signaling cascade activation. Lucidone also suppresses hepatitis C virus replication by Nrf2-mediated heme oxygenase-1 induction, it could be a potential lead or supplement for the development of new anti-HCV agent in the future.
Epicatechin pentaacetate is a phenolic compound from the V. mullaha fruit extracts, the utilization of V. mullaha fruit as functional food with prospective pharmaceutical, nutraceuticals and cosmeceutical properties.