Palmatine hydrochloride is a hydrochloride salt of palmatine which is a protoberberine alkaloid, it can induce remarkable cell apoptosis, has potential in photodynamic therapy on colon adenocarcinoma. Palmatine hydrochloride has anti-C. albicans effect, it mixes with berberine hydrochloride elicit antifungal activities, it also can reduce blood sugar and oxidative stress in STZ induced diabetic rats.
Hypericin is a photosensitive antiviral with anticancer and antidepressant agent . It can inhibit tyrosine kinases with IC50 of 7.5 μM. It can induce both apoptosis and necrosis in a concentration and light dose-dependent fashion, and inhibit RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis via affecting ERK signalling in vitro and suppresses wear particle-induced osteolysis in vivo.
Pseudohypericin has photocytotoxic, and antiretroviral activities, it has potential therapeutic value in diseases such as AIDS. Pseudohypericin can inhibit LPS-stimulated PGE2 and NO in mouse macrophages by potentiating suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) expression, it has anti-tumor potential.
Plants containing aloin A, aloe emodin, and structurally related anthraquinones have long been used as traditional medicines and in the formulation of retail products such as laxatives, dietary supplements, and cosmetics; however, topically applied aloe emodin increases the sensitivity of skin to UV light, although aloin A is not directly photocytotoxic, but human skin fibroblasts can metabolize aloin A to aloe emodin. Aloin A and aloe emodin have antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
4-Chlorocinnamic acid is a photosensitive compound. 2-Chlorocinnamic acid and 4-chlorocinnamic acid show potent urease inhibitory activities with the respective IC50 values of 0.66 and 1.10 uM.