Histamine, an organic nitrogenous compound, is involved in local immune responses regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus. It is a potent H1 and H2 receptor agonist. Histamine increases Nav1.8 expression in primary afferent neurons via H2 receptor-mediated pathway and thereby contributes to neuropathic pain, H2 receptor antagonists may potentially be used as analgesics for patients with neuropathic pain.
Cinnamic aldehyde, a COX-2 inhibitor, exhibits cardioprotective, antidepressant-like, anti-leukemia, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Its supplementation can improve glucose and lipid homeostasis in diabetic animals.
Falcarinol has effects on CaCo-2 cells appear to be biphasic, inducing pro-proliferative and apoptotic characteristics at low and high concentrations of Falcarinol, respectively. Falcarinol-associated dermatitis is due to antagonism of the CB(1) receptor in keratinocytes, leading to increased chemokine expression and aggravation of histamine action.