|Source:||The roots of Panax ginseng C. A. Mey.|
|Biological Activity or Inhibitors:||1. 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (PPT), one of the ginsenoside metabolites, enhanced adipogenesis by increasing the expression of PPARγ target genes such as AP2, LPL and PEPCK.
2. PPT increased expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), increased PPARγ-transactivation activity for the improvement of insulin resistance associated with diabetes.
|Solvent:||Chloroform, Dichloromethane, Ethyl Acetate, DMSO, Acetone, etc.|
|Storage:||Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: firstname.lastname@example.org
|After receiving:||The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.|
|1 mg||5 mg||10 mg||20 mg||25 mg|
|1 mM||2.0976 mL||10.4881 mL||20.9762 mL||41.9525 mL||52.4406 mL|
|5 mM||0.4195 mL||2.0976 mL||4.1952 mL||8.3905 mL||10.4881 mL|
|10 mM||0.2098 mL||1.0488 mL||2.0976 mL||4.1952 mL||5.2441 mL|
|50 mM||0.042 mL||0.2098 mL||0.4195 mL||0.839 mL||1.0488 mL|
|100 mM||0.021 mL||0.1049 mL||0.2098 mL||0.4195 mL||0.5244 mL|
Planta Med. 2003 Mar;69(3):235-40.
|Reversal of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance by protopanaxatriol ginsenosides from Korean red ginseng.[Pubmed: 12677527]|
|The overexpression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) or the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) confers multidrug resistance (MDR) to cancer cells. MDR cells can be sensitized to anticancer drugs when treated concomitantly with an MDR modulator. In this study, we investigated whether or not ginseng saponins could reverse MDR mediated by Pgp or MRP. The chemosensitization and drug accumulation effects of ginseng saponins such as the total saponin, protopanaxadiol ginsenosides (PDG), protopanaxatriol ginsenosides (PTG), ginsenosides-Rb 1, -Rb 2, -Rc, -Rg 1 and -Re were tested on the daunorubicin- and doxorubicin-resistant acute myelogenous leukemia sublines (AML-2/D100 and AML-2/DX100), which overexpress Pgp and MRP, respectively. PTG showed cytotoxicity in both sublines and was able to reverse resistance in the AML-2/D100 subline in a concentration-dependent manner. Conversely, other ginseng saponins at concentrations less than 300 microg/mL showed neither cytotoxicity nor chemosensitizing activity in both resistant sublines. Flow cytometry analysis showed that the effect of PTG (100 microg/mL) on drug accumulation of daunorubicin in the AML-2/D100 subline was 2-fold higher than that observed in the presence of verapamil (5 microg/mL) and 1.5 times less than cyclosporin A (3 microg/mL). The maximum non-cytotoxic concentrations of PTG did not appear to increase the Pgp levels, which is in contrast to verapamil and cyclosporin A. PTG at 200 microg/mL or more completely inhibited the azidopine photolabeling of Pgp. The results suggest that PTG has a chemosensitizing effect on Pgp-mediated MDR cells by increasing the intracellular accumulation of drugs through direct interaction with Pgp at the azidopine site. In addition, PTG may have a beneficial effect on cancer chemotherapy with respect to the possibility of long-term use without the concern of Pgp activation.|
J Nat Prod. 2007 Jul;70(7):1203-6.
|Microbial transformation of 20(S)-protopanaxatriol-type saponins by Absidia coerulea.[Pubmed: 17629326]|
|Three 20(S)-protopanaxatriol-type saponins, ginsenoside-Rg1 (1), notoginsenoside-R1 (2), and ginsenoside-Re (3), were transformed by the fungus Absidia coerulea (AS 3.3389). Compound 1 was converted into five metabolites, ginsenoside-Rh4 (4), 3beta,2beta,25-trihydroxydammar-(E)-20(22)-ene-6-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), 20(S)-ginsenoside-Rh1 (6), 20(R)-ginsenoside-Rh1 (7), and a mixture of 25-hydroxy-20(S)-ginsenoside-Rh1 and its C-20(R) epimer (8). Compound 2 was converted into 10 metabolites, 20(S)-notoginsenoside-R2 (9), 20(R)-notoginsenoside-R2 (10), 3beta,12beta,25-trihydroxydammar-(E)-20(22)-ene-6-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (11), 3beta,12beta-dihydroxydammar-(E)-20(22),24-diene-6-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (12), 3beta,12beta,20,25-tetrahydroxydammaran-6-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (13), and compounds 4-8. Compound 3 was metabolized to 20(S)-ginsenoside-Rg2 (14), 20(R)-ginsenoside-Rg2 (15), 3beta,12beta,25-trihydroxydammar-(E)-20(22)-ene-6-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (16), 3beta,12beta-dihydroxydammar-(E)-20(22),24-diene-6-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (17), 3beta,12beta,20,25-tetrahydroxydammaran-6-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (18), and compounds 4-8. The structures of five new metabolites, 10-13 and 16, were established by spectroscopic methods.|
|Effect of 20(S)-protopanaxatriol and its epimeric derivatives on myocardial injury induced by isoproterenol.[Pubmed: 21528638]|
|OBJECTIVE: It was reported Panax ginseng had diverse components and multifaceted pharmacological functions. This study aims to investigate the effect of 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (PT, CAS 179799-20-3) and its epimeric derivatives (20S, 24R-epoxy-dammarane-3beta, 6alpha, 12beta, 25-tetraol, PTD1 and 20S, 24S-epoxy-dammarane-3beta, 6alpha, 12beta, 25-tetraol, PTD2) on myocardial injury induced by isoproterenol in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were administered orally 20(S)-protopanaxatriol or its epimeric derivatives for 7 days. Four days after treatment, all rats, except those in the control group, were subcutaneously injected with isoproterenol (20 mg/kg) for 3 consecutive days. Two hours after the last isoproterenol injection, the rats were anaesthetized and sacrificed. The biochemical parameters were assayed and pathological examination of the heart tissues was performed. RESULTS: Administration of PT and PTD1 resulted in a reduction in creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase. PT and PTD1 Inhibited not only the elevation of malondialdehyde content, but also the reduction of superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione peroxidase and total antioxIdant capacity. The pathohistological changes induced by isoproterenol were also ameliorated by PT and PTD1. CONCLUSION: The present findings suggest that PT and PTD1 exerted cardioprotective effects against myocardial ischemic injury by enhancing the anti-free-radical actions of heart tissues. Furthermore the results indicated that the configuration of C-24 of the funan ring was involved in the phannacological action of the epimeric derivatives of 20(S)-protopanaxatriol.|
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2011 Jul 15;879(22):2011-7.
|Simultaneous determination of ginsenoside (G-Re, G-Rg1, G-Rg2, G-F1, G-Rh1) and protopanaxatriol in human plasma and urine by LC-MS/MS and its application in a pharmacokinetics study of G-Re in volunteers.[Pubmed: 21704572]|
|Ginsenoside Re (G-Re) improved the memory function of experimental animals in a preclinical study. Several types of saponins including G-Rg1, G-Rg2, G-F1, G-Rh1, and protopanaxatriol (PPT) may be the metabolites of G-Re according to reports from preclinical trials. In order to support a study of the pharmacokinetics of G-Re, an analytical method for G-Re and the co-detection of its probable metabolites using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated. Solid phase extraction was utilized in the sample preparation. Separation of the analytes was achieved using a gradient elution (0.05% formic acid-methanol-acetonitrile, each organic phase containing 0.05% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min with a retention time of approximately 2.88 min for G-Re. Data were acquired in the multiple reaction mode (MRM) and the linear range of the standard curve of plasma and urine samples for G-Re was 0.05-20 ng/mL with r(2)≥0.99. In the analysis of probable metabolites, G-Re, G-Rg1, G-F1, G-Rh1 and PPT were all detected in samples; however, G-Rg2 was not detected.|