|Description:||1. Rutin exerts anti-inflammatory effects in UVB-irradiated mouse skin by inhibiting expression of COX-2 and iNOS, which is attributable to its suppression of p38 MAP kinase and JNK signaling responsible for AP-1 activation. |
2. Rutin may protect against spatial memory impairment induced by trimethyltin.
3. Rutin has protective effects on liver injury induced by biliary obstruction in rats, the effect is associated with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects as well as the downregulation of NF-κB and TGF-β/Smad signaling, probably via interference of ERK activation and/or enhancement of Nrf2, HO-1, and AMPK activity.
4. Rutin and quercetin have only weak and short-term anticonvulsant potential, they seem to be safe for patients with epilepsy.
5. Rutin(200 mg/kg) has gastroprotective effect through an anti-lipoperoxidant effect, and also by enhancement of the anti-oxidant enzymatic (GSH-Px) activity.
6. Rutin attenuates ischemic neural apoptosis by reducing the expression of p53, preventing morphological changes and increasing endogenous antioxidant enzymatic activities, thus, rutin treatment may represent a novel approach in lowering the risk or improving the function of ischemia–reperfusion brain injury-related disorders.
|Targets:||COX | NOS | p38MAPK | JNK | AP-1 | TGF-β/Smad | NF-kB | ERK | Nrf2 | HO-1 | p53 | IL Receptor|
|Source:||The fruits of Styphnolobium japonicum (L.) Schott|
|Solvent:||DMSO, Pyridine, Methanol, Ethanol, etc.|
|Storage:||Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: firstname.lastname@example.org
|After receiving:||The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.|
|1 mg||5 mg||10 mg||20 mg||25 mg|
|1 mM||1.638 mL||8.19 mL||16.38 mL||32.76 mL||40.95 mL|
|5 mM||0.3276 mL||1.638 mL||3.276 mL||6.552 mL||8.19 mL|
|10 mM||0.1638 mL||0.819 mL||1.638 mL||3.276 mL||4.095 mL|
|50 mM||0.0328 mL||0.1638 mL||0.3276 mL||0.6552 mL||0.819 mL|
|100 mM||0.0164 mL||0.0819 mL||0.1638 mL||0.3276 mL||0.4095 mL|
Arch Biochem Biophys. 2014 Oct 1;559:38-45.
|Rutin inhibits UVB radiation-induced expression of COX-2 and iNOS in hairless mouse skin: p38 MAP kinase and JNK as potential targets.[Pubmed: 24875145]|
|Exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, a complete environmental carcinogen, induces oxidative and inflammatory skin damage, thereby increasing the risk of skin carcinogenesis. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of a wide variety of plant polyphenols have been reported. Rutin (3-rhamnosyl-glucosylquercetin), a polyphenol present in many edible plants, possesses diverse pharmacological properties including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and anticancer activities. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Rutin on UVB-induced inflammation in mouse skin in vivo. Topical application of Rutin onto the dorsal skin of female HR-1 hairless mice 30 min prior to UVB irradiation diminished epidermal hyperplasia and the levels of proteins modified by 4-hydroxynonenal, which is a biochemical hallmark of lipid peroxidation. Topical application of Rutin also significantly inhibited UVB-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), two representative inflammatory enzymes, in hairless mouse skin. Rutin inhibited the DNA binding of activator protein-1 (AP-1) and phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) in mouse skin exposed to UVB. Moreover, Rutin attenuated UVB-induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). Pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAP kinase and JNK decreased UVB-induced expression of COX-2 in mouse skin. Taken together, these findings suggest that Rutin exerts anti-inflammatory effects in UVB-irradiated mouse skin by inhibiting expression of COX-2 and iNOS, which is attributable to its suppression of p38 MAP kinase and JNK signaling responsible for AP-1 activation.|
Nutr Neurosci. 2014 Sep;17(5):222-9.
|Synaptophysin and the dopaminergic system in hippocampus are involved in the protective effect of rutin against trimethyltin-induced learning and memory impairment.[Pubmed: 24001577]|
|OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of Rutin against trimethyltin-induced spatial learning and memory impairment in mice. This study focused on the role of synaptophysin, growth-associated protein 43 and the action of the dopaminergic system in mechanisms associated with Rutin protection and trimethyltin-induced spatial learning and memory impairment. METHODS: Cognitive learning and memory was measured by Morris Water Maze. The expression of synaptophysin and growth-associated protein 43 in hippocampus was analyzed by western blot. The concentrations of dopamine, homovanillic acid, and dihyroxyphenylacetic acid in hippocampus were detected using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. RESULTS: Trimethyltin-induced spatial learning impairment showed a dose-dependent mode. Synaptophysin but not growth-associated protein 43 was decreased in the hippocampus after trimethyltin administration. The concentration of dopamine decreased, while homovanillic acid increased in the hippocampus after trimethyltin administration. Mice pretreated with 20 mg/kg of Rutin for 7 consecutive days exhibited improved water maze performance. Moreover, Rutin pretreatment reversed the decrease of synaptophysin expression and dopamine alteration. DISCUSSION: These results suggest that Rutin may protect against spatial memory impairment induced by trimethyltin. Synaptophysin and the dopaminergic system may be involved in trimethyltin-induced neuronal damage in hippocampus.|
Free Radic Biol Med. 2014 Aug;73:106-16.
|Protective effects of rutin on liver injury induced by biliary obstruction in rats.[Pubmed: 24815012]|
|Rutin has been shown to possess beneficial health effects, including hepatoprotection. However, to date, it has not been demonstrated to have a hepatoprotective effect against cholestatic liver injury. This is the first report to show a protective effect of Rutin on cholestatic liver injury. Cholestasis was produced by bile duct ligation (BDL) in male Sprague-Dawley rats for 3 weeks. Daily oral administration of Rutin was started 1 week before injury and was maintained for 4 weeks. In comparison with the control group, the BDL group showed liver injury as evidenced by histological changes and elevation in serum biochemicals, ductular reaction, fibrosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. These pathophysiological changes were attenuated by Rutin supplementation. Rutin alleviated BDL-induced transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), interleukin-1β, connective tissue growth factor, and collagen expression. The antifibrotic effect of Rutin was accompanied by reductions in α-smooth muscle actin-positive matrix-producing cells and Smad2/3 activity critical to the fibrogenic potential of TGF-β1. Rutin attenuated BDL-induced oxidative stress, leukocyte accumulation, NF-κB activation, and proinflammatory cytokine production. Further studies demonstrated an inhibitory effect of Rutin on the redox-sensitive intracellular signaling molecule extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Rutin also attenuated BDL-induced reduction in NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Taken together, the beneficial effects of Rutin were shown to be associated with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects as well as the downregulation of NF-κB and TGF-β/Smad signaling, probably via interference of ERK activation and/or enhancement of Nrf2, HO-1, and AMPK activity.|
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2014 Oct 3;54:50-8.
|Effect of quercetin and rutin in some acute seizure models in mice.[Pubmed: 24857758]|
|Quercetin is one of the most widely occurring flavonoid which is also often present in plants as glycosidic form - Rutin. These compounds are ingredients of plant diet and are also present in numerous pharmaceutical preparations and diet supplements which are taken by patients suffering from epilepsy and treating with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Influence of these compounds on central nervous system-related effects was proved both in experimental and clinical studies. Their influence on anxiety, depression, memory processes and convulsant activity was reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of quercetin and Rutin in some models of seizures, i.e., in the model of psychomotor seizures induced by 6Hz stimulation, in the maximal electroshock seizure threshold and intravenous pentylenetetrazole tests in mice. We also examined a possible mechanism of anticonvulsant activity of quercetin and its influence on action of two AEDs, i.e., valproic acid and levetiracetam, in the 6Hz seizure test. Our results revealed only a weak anticonvulsant potential of the studied flavonoids because they showed anticonvulsant action at doses from 10 to 200mg/kg only in the 6Hz test and did not change seizure thresholds in the remaining tests. Moreover, anticonvulsant action of the studied flavonoids was short-term, noted only at pretreatment time ranging between 30 and 60min. The highest anticonvulsant activity of quercetin was correlated with its high plasma and brain concentration, which was revealed in a pharmacokinetic study. We did not note changes in the anticonvulsant action of the used AEDs combined with quercetin in the model of psychomotor seizures in mice. Neither quercetin and Rutin nor combinations of quercetin with the studied AEDs produced any significant impairments of motor coordination (assessed in the chimney test), muscular strength (investigated in the grip-strength test) and long-term memory (evaluated in the passive avoidance test) in mice. The results of the present study suggest that quercetin and Rutin have only weak and short-term anticonvulsant potential. These flavonoids seem to be safe for patients with epilepsy because they neither changed activity of the studied AEDs nor produced any adverse effects.|
Food Chem., 2006, 98(3):508-12.
|Rutin content in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) food materials and products[Reference: WebLink]|
|The Rutin content of buckwheat products was compared to the Rutin content in their raw materials, in order to evaluate their value for producing functional foods. There is much less Rutin in noodles (78 mg/kg, d.w.b. – dry weight basis), than in the dark buckwheat flour (218 mg/kg, d.w.b.) from which they are produced. One of the possible explanations is the presence of the Rutin degrading enzyme. In raw (uncooked) groats there is 230 mg/kg (d.w.b.) of Rutin and in precooked groats, 88 mg/kg (d.w.b.). In buckwheat beer and vinegar there is a negligible content of Rutin. Buckwheat leaf flour contains about 2700 mg/kg (d.w.b.) Rutin, and is thus a suitable material for enriching functional foods, giving it the potential for preventive nutrition.|
Brain Res. 2009 Oct 6;1292:123-35.
|Rutin protects the neural damage induced by transient focal ischemia in rats.[Pubmed: 19631195]|
|Free radical induced neural damage is implicated in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury and antioxidants are reported to have neuroprotective activity. The present study was designed to assess the neuroprotective role of Rutin (Vitamin P), and mechanism of action. The middle cerebral artery (MCA) of an adult male Wistar rat was occluded for 2 h and reperfused for 22 h. The administration of Rutin (25 mg/kg bwt., orally) once daily for 21 days before middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) showed marked reduction in infarct size, reduced the neurological deficits in terms of behaviors, suppressed neuronal loss and diminished the p53 expression in MCAO rats. A significantly depleted activity of antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and content of glutathione (GSH) in MCAO group were protected significantly in MCAO group pretreated with Rutin. Conversely, the elevated level of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), H(2)O(2) and protein carbonyl (PC) in MCAO group was attenuated significantly in Rutin-pretreated group when compared with MCAO group. These results indicate that Rutin attenuates ischemic neural apoptosis by reducing the expression of p53, preventing morphological changes and increasing endogenous antioxidant enzymatic activities. Thus, Rutin treatment may represent a novel approach in lowering the risk or improving the function of ischemia-reperfusion brain injury-related disorders.|