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    Xylitol
    Information
    CAS No. 87-99-0 Price $30 / 20mg
    Catalog No.CFN99510Purity>=98%
    Molecular Weight152.15Type of CompoundMiscellaneous
    FormulaC5H12O5Physical DescriptionWhite cryst.
    Download Manual    COA    MSDSSimilar structuralComparison (Web)
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    Biological Activity
    Description: Xylitol, a commonly used sweetener, it can inhibit the growth of pneumococci, it is effective in preventing otitis media and decreasing the need for antimicrobials when xylitol sugar given in a syrup or chewing gum. Xylitol is also a widely used anti-caries agent that has anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects, it inhibits salivary lysozyme activity.
    Targets: Antifection | Autophagy
    In vitro:
    Arch Oral Biol. 2015 Mar 30;60(7):998-1006.
    The effects of xylitol and sorbitol on lysozyme- and peroxidase-related enzymatic and candidacidal activities.[Pubmed: 25874813]
    To investigate whether Xylitol and sorbitol affect enzymatic and candidacidal activities of lysozyme, the peroxidase system, and the glucose oxidase-mediated peroxidase system.
    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    Xylitol and sorbitol were added to hen egg-white lysozyme, bovine lactoperoxidase, glucose oxidase-mediated peroxidase, and whole saliva in solution and on hydroxyapatite surfaces. The enzymatic activities of lysozyme, peroxidase, and glucose oxidase-mediated peroxidase were determined by the turbidimetric method, the NbsSCN assay, and production of oxidized o-dianisidine, respectively. Candidacidal activities were determined by comparing colony forming units using Candida albicans ATCC strains 10231, 11006, and 18804. While Xylitol and sorbitol did not affect the enzymatic activity of hen egg-white lysozyme both in solution and on hydroxyapatite surfaces, they did inhibit the enzymatic activity of salivary lysozyme significantly in solution, but not on the surfaces. Xylitol and sorbitol enhanced the enzymatic activities of both bovine lactoperoxidase and salivary peroxidase significantly in a dose-dependent manner in solution, but not on the surfaces. Sorbitol, but not Xylitol, inhibited the enzymatic activity of glucose oxidase-mediated peroxidase significantly. Both Xylitol and sorbitol did not affect candidacidal activities of hen egg-white lysozyme, the bovine lactoperoxidase system, or the glucose oxidase-mediated bovine lactoperoxidase system.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    Xylitol and sorbitol inhibited salivary lysozyme activity, but enhanced both bovine lactoperoxidase and salivary peroxidase activities significantly in solution. Xylitol and sorbitol did not augment lysozyme- and peroxidase-related candidacidal activities.
    J Periodontol. 2014 Jun;85(6):e212-23.
    Xylitol, an anticaries agent, exhibits potent inhibition of inflammatory responses in human THP-1-derived macrophages infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis.[Pubmed: 24592909]
    Xylitol is a well-known anticaries agent and has been used for the prevention and treatment of dental caries. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of Xylitol are evaluated for possible use in the prevention and treatment of periodontal infections.
    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    Cytokine expression was stimulated in THP-1 (human monocyte cell line)-derived macrophages by live Porphyromonas gingivalis, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a commercial multiplex assay kit were used to determine the effects of Xylitol on live P. gingivalis-induced production of cytokine. The effects of Xylitol on phagocytosis and the production of nitric oxide were determined using phagocytosis assay, viable cell count, and Griess reagent. The effects of Xylitol on P. gingivalis adhesion were determined by immunostaining, and costimulatory molecule expression was examined by flow cytometry. Live P. gingivalis infection increased the production of representative proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-1β, in a multiplicity of infection- and time-dependent manner. Live P. gingivalis also enhanced the release of cytokines and chemokines, such as IL-12 p40, eotaxin, interferon γ-induced protein 10, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1. The pretreatment of Xylitol significantly inhibited the P. gingivalis-induced cytokines production and nitric oxide production. In addition, Xylitol inhibited the attachment of live P. gingivalis on THP-1-derived macrophages. Furthermore, Xylitol exerted antiphagocytic activity against both Escherichia coli and P. gingivalis.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    These findings suggest that Xylitol acts as an anti-inflammatory agent in THP-1-derived macrophages infected with live P. gingivalis, which supports its use in periodontitis.
    In vivo:
    Pediatrics. 1998 Oct;102(4 Pt 1):879-84.
    A novel use of xylitol sugar in preventing acute otitis media.[Pubmed: 9755259]
    Xylitol, a commonly used sweetener, is effective in preventing dental caries. As it inhibits the growth of pneumococci, we evaluated whether Xylitol could be effective in preventing acute otitis media (AOM).
    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    Altogether, 857 healthy children recruited from day care centers were randomized to one of five treatment groups to receive control syrup (n = 165), Xylitol syrup (n = 159), control chewing gum (n = 178), Xylitol gum (n = 179), or Xylitol lozenge (n = 176). The daily dose of Xylitol varied from 8.4 g (chewing gum) to 10 g (syrup). The design was a 3-month randomized, controlled trial, blinded within the chewing gum and syrup groups. The occurrence of AOM each time the child showed any symptoms of respiratory infection was the main outcome. Although at least one event of AOM was experienced by 68 (41%) of the 165 children who received control syrup, only 46 (29%) of the 159 children receiving Xylitol syrup were affected, for a 30% decrease (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.6%-55.4%). Likewise, the occurrence of otitis decreased by 40% compared with control subjects in the children who received Xylitol chewing gum (CI: 10.0%-71.1%) and by 20% in the lozenge group (CI: -12.9%-51.4%). Thus, the occurrence of AOM during the follow-up period was significantly lower in those who received Xylitol syrup or gum, and these children required antimicrobials less often than did controls. Xylitol was well tolerated.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    Xylitol sugar, when given in a syrup or chewing gum, was effective in preventing AOM and decreasing the need for antimicrobials.
    Xylitol Description
    Source: The roots of Primula officinalis
    Solvent: DMSO, Pyridine, Methanol, Ethanol, etc.
    Storage: Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).

    Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.

    Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: service@chemfaces.com

    After receiving: The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.
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    Calculate Dilution Ratios(Only for Reference)
    1 mg 5 mg 10 mg 20 mg 25 mg
    1 mM 6.5725 mL 32.8623 mL 65.7246 mL 131.4492 mL 164.3115 mL
    5 mM 1.3145 mL 6.5725 mL 13.1449 mL 26.2898 mL 32.8623 mL
    10 mM 0.6572 mL 3.2862 mL 6.5725 mL 13.1449 mL 16.4312 mL
    50 mM 0.1314 mL 0.6572 mL 1.3145 mL 2.629 mL 3.2862 mL
    100 mM 0.0657 mL 0.3286 mL 0.6572 mL 1.3145 mL 1.6431 mL
    * Note: If you are in the process of experiment, it's need to make the dilution ratios of the samples. The dilution data of the sheet for your reference. Normally, it's can get a better solubility within lower of Concentrations.
    Protocol
    Cell Research:
    Biotechnol Lett. 2015 May;37(5):983-90.
    Xylitol induces cell death in lung cancer A549 cells by autophagy.[Pubmed: 25650339]
    Xylitol is a widely used anti-caries agent that has anti-inflammatory effects. We have evaluated the potential of Xylitol in cancer treatment.
    METHODS AND RESULTS:
    It's effects on cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were measured by MTT assay and LDH assay. Cell morphology and autophagy were examined by immunostaining and immunoblotting. Xylitol inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in these cancer cells: A549, Caki, NCI-H23, HCT-15, HL-60, K562, and SK MEL-2. The IC50 of Xylitol in human gingival fibroblast cells was higher than in cancer cells, indicating that it is more specific for cancer cells. Moreover, Xylitol induced autophagy in A549 cells that was inhibited by 3-methyladenine, an autophagy inhibitor.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    These results indicate that Xylitol has potential in therapy against lung cancer by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing autophagy of A549 cells.