|Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2004 Oct;25(10):1276-84. |
|Protective effect of tubuloside B on TNFalpha-induced apoptosis in neuronal cells[Pubmed: 15456528]|
|To investigate the neuroprotective effect of Tubuloside B, one of the phenylethanoids isolated from the stems of Cistanche salsa, on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha)-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells.|
|Biol Pharm Bull.,1996 Dec;19(12):1580-5 |
|Antioxidative effects of phenylethanoids from Cistanche deserticola[Pubmed: 8996643]|
|The acetone-H2O (9:1) extract from the stem of Cistanche deserticola showed a strong free radical scavenging activity. Nine major phenylethanoid compounds were isolated from this extract. They were identified by NMR as acteoside, isoacteoside, 2'-acetylacteoside, Tubuloside B, echinacoside, tubuloside A, syringalide A 3'-alpha-rhamnopyranoside, cistanoside A and cistanoside F. All of these compounds showed stronger free radical scavenging activities than alpha-tocopherol on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and xanthine/xanthine oxidase (XOD) generated superoxide anion radical (O2-.). Among the nine compounds, isoacteoside and Tubuloside B, whose caffeoyl moiety is at 6'-position of the glucose, showed an inhibitory effect on XOD. We further studied the effects of these phenylethanoids on the lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes induced by enzymatic and non-enzymatic methods. As expected, each of them exhibited significant inhibition on both ascorbic acid/Fe2+ and ADP/NADPH/Fe3+ induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes, which were more potent than alpha-tocopherol of caffeic acid. The antioxidative effect was found to be potentiated by an increase in the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups in the molecule.|
|Planta Med.,1998 Mar;64(2):120-5. |
|Hepatoprotective activity of phenylethanoids from Cistanche deserticola[Pubmed: 9525102]|
|Four phenylethanoids isolated from the stems of Cistanche deserticola, acteoside (1), 2'-acetylacteoside (2), isoacteoside (3) and Tubuloside B (4), significantly suppressed NADPH/CCl4-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes. Addition of them to primary cultured rat hepatocytes efficiently prevented cell damage induced by exposure to CCl4 or D-galactosamine (D-GalN). Acteoside (1) further showed pronounced anti-hepatotoxic activity against CCl4 in vivo.|
|Planta Med., 2002 Nov;68(11):966-70 |
|Tubuloside B from Cistanche salsa rescues the PC12 neuronal cells from 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress[Pubmed: 12451484]|
|The neuroprotective effects of Tubuloside B, one of the phenylethanoids isolated from the Chinese herbal medicine Cistanche salsa, on 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP +)-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress in PC12 neuronal cells were investigated. PC12 cells treated with MPP + underwent apoptotic death as determined by MTT assay, flow cytometry and DNA agarose gel electrophoresis; intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by DCFH-DA staining with laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). Simultaneous treatment with Tubuloside B markedly attenuated MPP +-induced cytotoxicity, DNA fragmentation, and intracellular accumulation of ROS. These results strongly indicate that Tubuloside B prevents MPP +-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress. Tubuloside B may be applied as an antiparkinsonian agent.|
|Eur J Pharmacol . 2000 Jul 14;400(1):137-44 |
|Inhibition of nitric oxide by phenylethanoids in activated macrophages[Pubmed: 10913595]|
|Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the pro-inflammatory molecules. Some phenylethanoids have been previously shown to possess anti-inflammatory effects. Seven phenylethanoids from the stems of Cistanche deserticola, viz. isoacteoside, Tubuloside B, acteoside, 2'-O-acetylacteoside, echinacoside, cistanoside A and tubuloside A, were tested for their effect on NO radical generation by activated murine macrophages. At the concentration of 100-200 microM, all the phenylethanoids reduced (6.3-62.3%) nitrite accumulation in lipopolysaccharide (0.1 microgram/ml)-stimulated J774.1 cells. At 200 microM, they inhibited by 32.2-72.4% nitrite accumulation induced by lipopolysaccharide (0.1 microgram/ml)/interferon-gamma (100 U/ml) in mouse peritoneal exudate macrophages. However, these compounds did not affect the expression of inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) mRNA, the iNOS protein level, or the iNOS activity in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated J774.1 cells. Instead, they showed a clear scavenging effect (6.9-43.9%) at the low concentrations of 2-10 microM of about 12 microM nitrite generated from an NO donor, 1-propanamine-3-hydroxy-2-nitroso-1-propylhydrazino (PAPA NONOate). These results indicate that the phenylethanoids have NO radical-scavenging activity, which possibly contributes to their anti-inflammatory effects.|
|Zhong Yao Cai . 2009 Jul;32(7):1067-9. |
|Structure-activity relationships of phenylethanoid glycosides in plants of Cistanche salsa on antioxidative activity[Pubmed: 19873735]|
|Objective: To study the structure-activity relationships of phenylethanoid glycosides in plants of Cistanche salsa on antioxidative activity.
Methods: By the assay systems of DPPH*, the antioxidant activity of six phenylethanoid glycosides from plants of Cistanche salsa was determined to investigate the relationship between the antioxidant activities and phenylethanoid glycosides's structural characteristics.
Results: The antioxidative activity of phenylethanoid glycosides was variant with dose-dependent effect. The sequence of the strength of the antioxidative activity of the six components was shown to be 2'-Acetylacteoside > Acteoside > or = Tubuloside B > or = Isoacteoside > Echinacoside > Cistanoside A.
Conclusion: The antioxidative activity of phenylethanoid glycosides is related to the number of phenolic hydroxyl, steric hindrance, 2-acetyl on the middle glucopyranose, and the location of phenolic hydroxyl. Additionally, it may be related to the alpha, beta-unsaturated ketone of phenl-2-propenoyl.|