Caryophyllene oxide, an oxygenated terpenoid existed in many plant essential oil, is well known as preservative in food, drugs and cosmetics with antifungal, acaricidal, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, significant central as well as peripheral analgesic and skin penetration enhancing properties. Caryophyllene Oxide and lupenone have synergistic effect against Trypanosoma cruzi. It inhibited growth and induces apoptosis through the suppression of PI3K/AKT/mTOR/S6K1 pathways, ROS-mediated MAPKs activation, and via modulation of 15-LOX.
Atractylenolide III, a potential house dust mite control agent, has neuroprotection, gastroprotective, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory activities, it also may control immunological reactions by regulating the cellular functions of IL-6 in mast cells. It inhibited nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in mouse macrophages, and inhibited Lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF- α and NO production in macrophages.
1. The use of costic acid and other components from the plant Dittrichia viscosa (Greek: aconiza) and related species for the preparation of acaricidal products used against the acari Varroa destructor as parasite of the honey bee.
Nootkatone, a naturally occurring AMPK activator, can stimulate energy metabolism and prevents diet-induced obesity by activating AMPK. (+)-Nootkatone has antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and antiplatelet activities. Nootkatone is a strong repellent and toxicant to Formosan subterranean termites, the lowest effective concentration tested is 10 micrograms/g substrate. (+)-Nootkatone has potent inhibitory effect on collagen-, thrombin-, and AA-induced platelet aggregation, it also has a significant inhibitory effect on rat platelet aggregation ex vivo.