||Atractylenolide III, a potential house dust mite control agent, has neuroprotection, gastroprotective, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory activities, it also may control immunological reactions by regulating the cellular functions of IL-6 in mast cells. It inhibited nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in mouse macrophages, and inhibited Lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF- α and NO production in macrophages.|
|Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2016;38(2):98-102. |
|Anti-inflammatory activity of atractylenolide III through inhibition of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in mouse macrophages.[Pubmed: 26667579 ]|
METHODS AND RESULTS:
To elucidate the anti-inflammatory mechanisms involved, we investigated the effects of Atractylenolide III (ATL-III) on cytokine expression, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), C-Jun-N-terminal protein kinase1/2 (JNK1/2) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 mouse macrophages. Macrophages were incubated with various concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100 μM) of ATL-III and/or LPS (1 μg/mL) for 24 h. The production of nitric oxide (NO) was determined by the Greiss reagent. The production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Furthermore, macrophages were treated with ATL-III (0, 25, 100 μM) for 1 h and then stimulated by LPS. NF-κB, p38, JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 were determined by western blotting. We found ATL-III showed no inhibitory effect on cell proliferation at concentrations ranging from 1 μM to 100 μM. In addition, ATL-III decreased the release of NO, TNF-α, PGE2 and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner and showed statistically significant at concentrations of 50 μM and 100 μM as well as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. Furthermore, ATL-III suppressed the transcriptional activity of NF-κB. ATL-III also inhibited the activation of ERK1/2, p38 and JNK1/2 in LPS-treated macrophages and showed statistically significant at concentrations of 25 μM and 100 μM.
These data suggest that ATL-III shows an anti-inflammatory effect by suppressing the release of NO, PGE2, TNF-α and IL-6 related to the NF-κB- and MAPK-signaling pathways.
|Neurochem Res. 2014 Sep;39(9):1753-8. |
|Neuroprotection of atractylenolide III from Atractylodis macrocephalae against glutamate-induced neuronal apoptosis via inhibiting caspase signaling pathway.[Pubmed: 24958167]|
Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity appears to play a crucial role in neurological disorders. Neuroprotection against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy for preventing and/or treating these excitotoxicity-mediated diseases. In the present study, Atractylenolide III, which exhibited significantly neuroprotective effect against glutamate-induced neuronal apoptosis, was isolated from Atractylodes macrocephala by means of bioactivity-guided fractionation. The inhibitory effect of Atractylenolide III on glutamate-induced neuronal apoptosis was in a concentration-dependent manner. The anti-apoptotic property of Atractylenolide III might be mediated, in part, via inhibiting caspase signaling pathway.
Atractylenolide III may have therapeutic potential in excitotoxicity-mediated neurological diseases.
|J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Jul 25;55(15):6027-31. |
|Toxicity of atractylon and atractylenolide III Identified in Atractylodes ovata rhizome to Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.[Pubmed: 17595110]|
The acaricidal activity of materials derived from rhizome of Atractylodes ovata (Atractylodes macrocephala) toward adult Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was examined using fabric-circle residual contact and vapor-phase toxicity bioassays. Results were compared with those of the currently used acaricides: benzyl benzoate, dibutyl phthalate, and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (Deet). The active principles of A. ovata rhizome were identified as the sesquiterpenoids, Atractylenolide III (1) and atractylon (2), by spectroscopic analysis. In fabric-circle residual contact bioassays with adult D. farinae, Atractylenolide III (LD50, 103.3 mg/m2) and atractylon (136.2 mg/m2) were five and four times more toxic than Deet and 1.7- and 1.3-fold more active than dibutyl phthalate, respectively, based on 24 h LD50 values. These compounds were less toxic than benzyl benzoate (LD50, 45.8 mg/m2). Against adult D. pteronyssinus, Atractylenolide III (LD50, 73.8 mg/m2) and atractylon (72.1 mg/m2) were eight times more active than Deet and 2.5-fold more toxic than dibutyl phthalate. These compounds were slightly less effective than benzyl benzoate (LD50, 46.0 mg/m2). In vapor-phase toxicity tests with both mite species, Atractylenolide III and atractylon were effective in closed but not in open containers.
These results indicate that the effect of these sesquiterpenoids was largely a result of action in the vapor phase. Naturally occurring Atractylenolide III and atractylon merit further study as potential house dust mite control agents or leads because of their great activity as a fumigant.
|J Pharm Pharmacol. 2010 Mar;62(3):381-8 |
|Gastroprotective activity of atractylenolide III from Atractylodes ovata on ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in vitro and in vivo.[Pubmed: 20487223 ]|
|The rhizome of Atractylodes ovata De Candolle is popularly used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat gastrointestinal diseases. However, the major gastroprotective compounds of A. ovata have not been identified. This study reports on the principal gastro- protective component of A. ovata.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Five sesquiterpenoids (atractylon, atractylenolides I, II, III and biatractylolide) were isolated from the extracts of A. ovata rhizome via silica gel column chromatography. The gastroprotective effects of these five sesquiterpenoids were measured in in-vitro ethanol-induced primary culture rat gastric mucosal (PRGM) cell damage and in-vivo ethanol-induced acute rat gastric ulcer models.
Atractylon, atractylenolide I and biatractylolide were strongly toxic in PRGM cells, whilst atractylenolides II and III were not. Atractylenolide II did not show cytoprotective effects, but oral administration of Atractylenolide III dose-dependently prevented ethanol-induced PRGM cell death and cell membrane damage. The EC50 values were 0.27 and 0.34 mm, respectively. In the in-vivo assay, Atractylenolide III 10 mg/kg significantly reduced 70% ethanol-induced Wistar rat gastric ulcer. Atractylenolide III could inhibit matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 expression through upregulation of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase from the gastric ulcerated tissues.
Atractylenolide III was the major gastroprotective component of A. ovata in ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer. It is suggested that the gastroprotective mechanism of Atractylenolide III was via inhibition of the MMP-2 and MMP-9 pathway.