1. Cyclovirobuxine D(CVB-D) has been widely used for treatment of cardiac insufficiency and arrhythmias in China, the antiarrhythmic and proarrhythmic potential of this drug might be concerned with prolongation of action potential duration and QT interval.
2. Cyclovirobuxine D is beneficial for heart failure induced by myocardial infarction and supports the potential for cyclovirobuxine D as a new therapy for heart failure.
3. Cyclovirobuxine D can induce autophagy in the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line, CVB-D-induced autophagy and decrease in cell viability could be blocked by 3-methyladenine, a well-established autophagy inhibitor, moreover.
4. Cyclovirobuxine D can attenuate the phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR, two pivotal suppressors in autophagy pathways;these findings may support the potential utility of autophagy inducers in cancer treatment.
5. Cyclovirobuxine D shows vasorelaxant effect.
1. Neferine shows significant improvement in cognitive impairment in scopolamine-induced amnesia animal models and moderate inhibitory activities, the anti-amnesic effect of neferine may be mediated via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities, as well as inhibition of ChEs and BACE1.
2. Neferine induces autophagy through the inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and ROS hyper generation in A549 cells.
3. Neferine attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vitro and in vivo, the beneficial effect of neferine may be associated with its activities of anti-inflammation, antioxidation, cytokine and NF-kappaB inhibition.
4. Neferine has effects similar to rosiglitazone in decreasing fasting blood glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and enhancing insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant rats.
5. Neferine inhibits proliferation of human osteosarcoma cells by promoting p38 MAPK-mediated p21 stabilization.
6. Neferine shows anti-anxiety effects and that neferine may participate in the efficacy of the sedative effects of embryos of the seeds of Nelumbo nucifera, the mechanisms of the sedative effects of neferine are not similar to those of diazepam.
7. Neferine possesses a significant inhibitory effect on amiodarone-induced pulmonary fibrosis, probably due to its properties of anti-inflammation, surfactant protein-D (SP-D) inhibition and restoring increased CD4+CD25+ Tregs which may modulate Th1/Th2 imbalance by suppressing Th2 response.
8. Neferine shows antidepressant-like effects in mice similar to typical antidepressants and that these effects are mediated by the 5-HT 1A receptor.
9. Neferine exerts strong antioxidant property against isoproterenol-induced oxidative stress and can be used as a potent cardioprotective agent against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction.
1. Saikosaponin D shows potent anti-inflammatory activity through inhibitory effects on NF-κB activation and thereby on iNOS, COX-2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines.
2. Saikosaponin D protects against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity by inhibiting NF-κB and STAT3 signaling.
3. Saikosaponin D, a novel SERCA inhibitor, induces autophagic cell death in apoptosis-defective cells.
4. Saikosaponin D ameliorates heat stress-induced oxidative damage by modulating the activity of anti-oxidant enzymes and HSP72 in LLC-PK1 cells.
5. Saikosaponin D inhibits proliferation of human undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma cells through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.
6. Saikosaponin D is an agonist of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and it possesses neuroprotective effects in corticosterone-treated PC12 cells.
1. Fisetin is an anti-inflammatory flavonoid, it has beneficial effect on periodontal disease, may via inhibiting MAPK activation and COX-2 expression without affecting cell viability.
2. Fisetin can ameliorate photodamage by suppressing the mitogen-activated protein Kinase/Matrix metalloproteinase pathway and nuclear factor-κB pathways.
3. Fisetin suppresses the accumulation of intracellular lipids by inhibiting GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake through inhibition of the mTOR-C/EBPα signaling in 3T3-L1 cells.
4. Fisetin has antimetastatic effects on prostate, breast and lung cancers.
5. Fisetin functions as a dual inhibitor of mTORC1/2 signaling leading to inhibition of prostate cancer (CaP)-dependent translation and induction of autophagic cell death in PC3 cells.
6. Fisetin has direct antioxidant activity, it can also increase the intracellular levels of glutathione (GSH), the major endogenous antioxidant, and fisetin has both neurotrophic and anti-inflammatory activity.
7. Fisetin shows in vitro antifungal activity( MIC<128 ug/mL) and low toxicity( (IC50=158 ug/mL) on animal cells.
1. Madurensine and doronenine show moderate cytotoxicity on cancerous U-937 cells (IC(50) values: 47.97 and 29.57 M respectively).
2. Madurensine induces autophagy, which in prolonged circumstances may lead to autophagic cell death.