|Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2014 Aug 4;53:80-9. |
|Saikosaponin D acts against corticosterone-induced apoptosis via regulation of mitochondrial GR translocation and a GR-dependent pathway.[Pubmed: 24636912]|
|Saikosaponin D is an agonist of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and our preliminary study showed that it possesses neuroprotective effects in corticosterone-treated PC12 cells. However, further proof is required, and the molecular mechanisms of this neuroprotection remain unclear. This study sought to further examine the cytoprotective efficiency and potential mechanisms of action of Saikosaponin D in corticosterone-treated PC12 cells. |
METHODS AND RESULTS:
The cells were treated with 250 μM corticosterone in the absence or presence of Saikosaponin D for 24 h; cell viability was then determined, and Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide (PI) and annexin/PI double staining, and TUNEL staining were performed. Next, mPTP, MMP, [Ca(2+)]i, translocation of the GR to the nucleus and Western blot analyses for caspase-3, caspase-9, cytochrome C, GR, GILZ, SGK-1, NF-Κb (P65), IκB-α, Bad, Akt, Hsp90 and HDAC-6 were investigated. The neuroprotective effects of Saikosaponin D were further confirmed by Hoechst 33342/PI, annexin/PI and TUNEL staining assays. These additional data suggested that Saikosaponin D partially reversed the physiological changes induced by corticosterone by inhibiting the translocation of the GR to the mitochondria, restoring mitochondrial function, down-regulating the expression of pro-apoptotic-related signalling events and up-regulating anti-apoptotic-related signalling events.
These findings suggest that SSD exhibited its anti-apoptotic effects via differential regulation of mitochondrial and nuclear GR translocation, partial reversal of mitochondrial dysfunction, inhibition of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and selective activation of the GR-dependent survival pathway.
|Cell Death Dis. 2013 Jul 11;4:e720. |
|Saikosaponin-d, a novel SERCA inhibitor, induces autophagic cell death in apoptosis-defective cells.[Pubmed: 23846222 ]|
|Autophagy is an important cellular process that controls cells in a normal homeostatic state by recycling nutrients to maintain cellular energy levels for cell survival via the turnover of proteins and damaged organelles. However, persistent activation of autophagy can lead to excessive depletion of cellular organelles and essential proteins, leading to caspase-independent autophagic cell death. As such, inducing cell death through this autophagic mechanism could be an alternative approach to the treatment of cancers. |
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Recently, we have identified a novel autophagic inducer, Saikosaponin D (Ssd), from a medicinal plant that induces autophagy in various types of cancer cells through the formation of autophagosomes as measured by GFP-LC3 puncta formation. By computational virtual docking analysis, biochemical assays and advanced live-cell imaging techniques, Ssd was shown to increase cytosolic calcium level via direct inhibition of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase pump, leading to autophagy induction through the activation of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase-AMP-activated protein kinase-mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. In addition, Ssd treatment causes the disruption of calcium homeostasis, which induces endoplasmic reticulum stress as well as the unfolded protein responses pathway. Ssd also proved to be a potent cytotoxic agent in apoptosis-defective or apoptosis-resistant mouse embryonic fibroblast cells, which either lack caspases 3, 7 or 8 or had the Bax-Bak double knockout.
These results provide a detailed understanding of the mechanism of action of Ssd, as a novel autophagic inducer, which has the potential of being developed into an anti-cancer agent for targeting apoptosis-resistant cancer cells.
|Am J Chin Med. 2014;42(5):1261-77. |
|Saikosaponin-D attenuates heat stress-induced oxidative damage in LLC-PK1 cells by increasing the expression of anti-oxidant enzymes and HSP72.[Pubmed: 25169909]|
|Heat stress stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which cause oxidative damage in the kidney. This study clarifies the mechanism by which Saikosaponin D (SSd), which is extracted from the roots of Bupleurum falcatum L, protects heat-stressed pig kidney proximal tubular (LLC-PK1) cells against oxidative damage. SSd alone is not cytotoxic at concentrations of 1 or 3 μg/mL as demonstrated by a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. To assess the effects of SSd on heat stress-induced cellular damage, LLC-PK1 cells were pretreated with various concentrations of SSd, heat stressed at 42°C for 1 h, and then returned to 37°C for 9 h. DNA ladder and MTT assays demonstrated that SSd helped to prevent heat stress-induced cellular damage when compared to untreated cells. Additionally, pretreatment with SSd increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) but decreased the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) in a dose-dependent manner when compared to controls. Furthermore, real-time PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated that SSd significantly increased the expression of copper and zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD-1), CAT, GPx-1 and heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) at both the mRNA and protein levels. |
In conclusion, these results are the first to demonstrate that SSd ameliorates heat stress-induced oxidative damage by modulating the activity of anti-oxidant enzymes and HSP72 in LLC-PK1 cells.
|Chem Biol Interact. 2014 Sep 27;223C:80-86. |
|Saikosaponin d protects against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity by inhibiting NF-κB and STAT3 signaling.[Pubmed: 25265579]|
|Overdose of acetaminophen (APAP) can cause acute liver injury that is sometimes fatal, requiring efficient pharmacological intervention. The traditional Chinese herb Bupleurum falcatum has been widely used for the treatment of several liver diseases in eastern Asian countries, and Saikosaponin D (SSd) is one of its major pharmacologically-active components. However, the efficacy of Bupleurum falcatum or SSd on APAP toxicity remains unclear. |
METHODS AND RESULTS:
C57/BL6 mice were administered SSd intraperitoneally once daily for 5days, followed by APAP challenge. Biochemical and pathological analysis revealed that mice treated with SSd were protected against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. SSd markedly suppressed phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and reversed the APAP-induced increases in the target genes of NF-κB, such as pro-inflammatory cytokine Il6 and Ccl2, and those of STAT3, such as Socs3, Fga, Fgb and Fgg. SSd also enhanced the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine Il10 mRNA. Collectively, these results demonstrate that SSd protects mice from APAP-induced hepatotoxicity mainly through down-regulating NF-κB- and STAT3-mediated inflammatory signaling.
This study unveils one of the possible mechanisms of hepatoprotection caused by Bupleurum falcatum and/or SSd.