1. Neotuberostemonine (NTS) is one of the main antitussive alkaloids in the root of Stemona tuberosa Lour, it has a significant protective effect on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis through suppressing the recruitment and M2 polarization of macrophages.
2. Neotuberostemonine demonstrates antitussive properties in guinea pigs.
Neferine, a autophagy inducer, which has anti-amnesic, sedative, anti-anxiety, antidepressant, cardioprotective, anti- pulmonary fibrosis,anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities. It inhibited ChEs, BACE1, NF-kappaB, PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, Neferine has effects similar to rosiglitazone in decreasing fasting blood glucose, insulin, TG, TNF-alpha and enhancing insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant rats.
Peiminine has potent anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, antitussive, and expectorant effects. It induces autophagic cell death thus represses colorectal carcinoma tumor growth. Peiminine can inhibit lung inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis in a rat model of bleomycin-induced lung injury, by reducing circulating IFN-γ levels and inhibiting signal transduction pathways involving TGF-β, CTGF, ERK1/2, NF-κB and FasL.
Phillyrin is a novel AMPK activator, has anti-obesity effects in nutritive obesity mice, it can prevent lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells by blocking the expression of SREBP-1c and FAS through LKB1/AMPK activation. Phillyrin may be a new preventive agent of acute lung injury in the clinical setting, it potentially contributes to the suppression of the activation of MAPK and NF-κB pathways, it also has protective effects on H2O2-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in PC12 cells.
1. Praeruptorin D exhibits antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities.
2. Praeruptorin D and E protect mice from hydrochloric acid (HCl)-induced lung injury by inhibiting PMNs influx, IL-6 release and protein exudation.
3. Praeruptorin D can significantly up-regulate CYP3A4 expression and activity via the Pregnane X receptor (PXR)-mediated pathway.