Chlorogenic acid, a phenolic compound found ubiquitously in plants, is an antioxidant and metal chelator, it has antiviral activity by inhibiting HBV replication, it inhibits the inflammatory reaction in HSE via the suppression of TLR2/TLR9-Myd88 signaling pathways. Some derivatives of chlorogenic acid are hypoglycemic agents and may affect lipid metabolism, chlorogenic acid can improve glucose tolerance, decrease some plasma and liver lipids, and improve mineral pool distribution in vivo.
(+)-Taxifolin is an inhibitor of aggregation of the 42-residue amyloid β-protein, it has preventive effects against Alzheimer's disease-like pathogenesis in vivo. It is also a weak inhibitor of cytochrome b5 reduction (IC50=9.8μM).
Alpha-lipoic acid has become a common ingredient in multivitamin formulas, anti-aging supplements, and even pet food, it is well-defined as a therapy for preventing diabetic polyneuropathies, and scavenges free radicals, chelates metals, and restores intracellular glutathione levels which otherwise decline with age. Alpha-lipoic acid has therapeutic effects on joint inflammation and erosion in an animal model via NF-kappa B down regulation, it inhibits TNF-alpha induced NF-kappa B activation through blocking of MEKK1-MKK4-IKK signaling cascades. Lipoic acid is a novel treatment for Alzheimer's disease and related dementias.
Proanthocyanidins exerts antiviral, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, hypolipidemic, anti-osteoporosis, anti-inflammatory ,antioxidant and anti-apoptosis activities. Dietary proanthocyanidins inhibits photocarcinogenesis in mice through the inhibition of UVB-induced inflammation and mediators of inflammation in mouse skin. Proanthocyanidins form stable complexes with metal ions and with proteins and are good reducing agents, they may participate in the prevention of cancers, both of the digestive tract and inner organs, they may also protect LDLs against oxidation and inhibit platelet aggregation and therefore prevent cardiovascular diseases.
Phytic acid is the principal storage form of phosphorus in many plant tissues, especially bran and seeds. It can act as a cofactor in DNA repair by nonhomologous end-joining. It is a trypsin inhibitor, has chelating, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects, it forms an iron chelate which greatly accelerates Fe2+-mediated oxygen reduction yet blocks iron-driven hydroxyl radical generation and suppresses lipid peroxidation. High concentrations of phytic acid prevent browning and putrefaction of various fruits and vegetables by inhibiting polyphenol oxidase, it may be a substitute for presently employed preservatives.