2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxyldiphenylethylene-2-O-glucoside(TSG) has potential to the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's diseases, it not only prevents over-expression of α-synuclein at an early stage, but also reverses the increased expression of α-synuclein and inhibits the aggregation at the late stage of Tg mice. TSG suppresses PDGF-BB-induced PASMCs proliferation is associated with an inhibition of AKT / GSK3β signaling pathways. TGS, emodin and physcion also have the lipid regulation activity to an overall synergy.
Medicarpin, a legume phytoalexin, acts as an estrogen receptor (ER) agonist, can stimulate osteoblast differentiation likely via ERβ, promote achievement of peak bone mass, and is devoid of uterine estrogenicity; in addition, given its excellent oral bioavailability, it can be potential osteogenic agent. Medicarpin sensitizes myeloid leukemia cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through the induction of DR5 and activation of the ROS-JNK-CHOP pathway. Medicarpin also has antifungal activity.
Anhydroicaritin exhibits immunosuppressive effects and has strong activity in scavenging DPPH radical. Anhydroicaritin can improve diet-induced obesity and hyperlipidemia and alleviate insulin resistance by suppressing SREBPs activation, it can serve as a leading compound for pharmacological control of metabolic diseases. Anhydroicaritin has the potential of stimulating the formation of mineralization nodules and further speeding up the formation of bone, it possesses significant protective effects on the zymosan-induced peritonitis mice, which may be associated with the regulation ofCa2+, influx in macrophages and iNOS expression.
Taurine, a free β-amino acid with remarkable antioxidant activity, is used in Taurine-enriched beverages to boost the muscular power of athletes. Taurine can effectively promote chondrocyte growth and enhance accumulation of glycosaminoglycans and collagens in the conditioned media of chondrocytes, it is effective in proliferation promotion and phenotype maintenance of chondrocytes, thus, taurine may be a useful pro-chondrogenic agent for autologous chondrocyte implantation in the treatment of cartilage repair.Taurine also can attenuate nandrolone decanoate-induced poor sperm quality and testicular toxicity in rats.
Apigenin 7-O-methylglucuronide did not affect GAG level or secretion, may potentially be used in osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type I pharmacotherapy in patients with normal GAG content. Apigenin 7-O-methylglucuronide which normalized collagen synthesis in OI cells may exert their effects through beta1-integrin-mediated signaling.