Ethylparaben is the ethyl ester of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, used as an antifungal preservative and food additive. It is a standardized chemical allergen, has a certain reproductive toxicity to F0 male Drosophila.The physiologic effect of ethylparaben is by means of Increased Histamine Release, and Cell-mediated Immunity.
Forsythoside B inhibits inflammatory response, has antioxidant, antisepsis properties, and also has potent neuroprotective effects with a favorable therapeutic time-window, reduce of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury degree, attenuating blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown. Forsythoside B could inhibit TNF-alpha, IL-6, IκB and modulate NF-κB.
trans-Dihydromorin is an effective hypopigmenting agent in normal skin cells, hypopigmenting agents effective in melanoma system may not be effective on normal melanocytes, indicating that a non-tumor melanocyte system is more suitable for the screening of hypopigmenting agents. Dihydromorin shows strong mushroom inhibitory activity with IC50 values lower than 50 microM, more potent than (IC50 = 71.6 microM), it may be as an antibrowning agent in food systems.
Carnosol, a novel agonist of TRPA1 with an EC50 value of 12.46 uM, which exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, anticarcinogen, anti-angiogenic, anti- invasive and antimetastatic properties. Carnosol can cause a significant decrease in both bacterial and yeast growth whilst, it may prove useful as a food antioxidant which could also contribute to the retardation of the microbial spoilage of foods; it also can inhibit adipocyte differentiation in mouse 3T3-L1 cells through induction of phase2 enzymes and activation of glutathione metabolism, it may be a potential drug against obesity-related diseases.
Sorbic acid is important food preservatives and powerful fungistatic agents, it inhibits various bacteria, including sporeformers, at various stages of their life cycle (germination, outgrowth and cell division). Sorbic acid is a more potent uncoupler of the membrane potential than acetic acid, the effect may also slow the rate of ATP synthesis significantly and may thus (partially) explain Sorbic acid's effectiveness.