Theobromine is a xanthine alkaloid widely consumed as stimulants and snacks in coffee and cocoa based foods, it may form the basis for a new class of antitussive drugs. Theobromine has antioxidants and also capable of prooxidant action, it may have therapeutic potential for diabetic nephropathy, by reducing kidney ECM accumulation in diabetic. It can inhibit adenosine receptor A1 (AR1) signaling.
Atractylenolide I, a TLR4-antagonizing agent, shows a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, digestion promoting,significant antitumor, and antioxidant effects. It ameliorates sepsis syndrome,liver and kidney functions by reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and LPS.
1. Benzoylecgonine causes oxidative stress.
2. Benzoylecgonine and oxytocin increase myometrial contractility, while atosiban and ritodrine induce myometrial relaxation.
3. Benzoylecgonine, validated methodologies from matrices other than blood that can be obtained in the autopsy room would be useful to the forensic toxicologist in the evaluation of a specific forensic case.
Theaflavin-3-gallate has anticancer and apoptotic effects in non-small cell lung carcinoma, it acts as prooxidants and induce oxidative stress, with carcinoma cells more sensitive than normal fibroblasts. Theaflavin-3-gallate can play a role in decreased intestinal cholesterol absorption via inhibition of micelle formation.
Alpha-pinene inhibits the nuclear translocation of NF-kappa B induced by LPS in THP-1 cells, and this effect is partly due to the upregulation of I kappa B alpha expression. Alpha-pinene inhibits early root growth and causes oxidative damage in root tissue through enhanced generation of ROS, as indicated by increased lipid peroxidation, disruption of membrane integrity and elevated antioxidant enzyme levels.