1. Lyoniresinol shows robust anti-melanogenic activity, decreases tyrosinase activity and melanin biosynthesis in B16F10 cells by activating ERK signaling, which downregulated MITF, tyrosinase, but not TRP-1 and TRP-2 protein expression.
2. Lyoniresinol has antioxidant effect.
1. Cichoric acid has been shown to inhibit hyaluronidase and HIV-1 integrase, and to possess phagoeytosis stimulatory activity in vitro and in vivo and antiviral acitivy.
2. Chicoric acid may reduce acute alcohol-induced steatosis in mice through interfering with the induction of iNOS and iNOS-dependent signaling cascades in the liver.
3. Chicoric acid inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes which was characterized by chromatin condensation and poly ADP-ribose-polymerase (PARP) cleavage.
1. Aloin A/B (1) and aloin-6'-O-acetate A/B (2) inhibited growth of several bacterial and fungal pathogens with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) from 10 to 400 microg/mL and 800 to 1000 microg/mL.
1. Artocarpin induces apoptosis in HSC-1 and T47D cells through modulation of MAPK and Akt/mTOR pathways, an extrinsic pathway , respectively .
2. Artocarpin has anti- bactericidal effect, can reduce the viability of pneumococci by a factor of >1000, without obvious harm to lung epithelial cells.
3. Artocarpin can prevent skin damage from UVB irradiation-induced photodamage in hairless mice and this is likely mediated through its antioxidant and anti-inflammation mechanisms.
1. The extract of A. vera and its active ingredient aloin cause melanin aggregation leading to skin lightening via alpha adrenergic receptor stimulation, the result opens new vistas for the use of A. vera regarding its clinical application as a new nontoxic melanolytic agent for the treatment of hyperpigmentation.
2. Dietary supplementation of aloe components (aloin, aloesin and aloe-gel) can ameliorate intestinal inflammatory responses in a 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis rat model, in particular, aloesin is the most potent inhibitor.