8-Gingerol is one of the principal components of ginger, which is widely used in China and elsewhere as a food, spice and herb, it has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and skin-whitening activities. It suppresses cellular tyrosinase activity and decrease melanin content, inhibits the expression of MC1R, MITF, tyrosinase, TRP1 and TRP2, decreases intracellular RS and ROS levels in B16F10 and B16F1 cells, inhibits melanogenesis by down-regulation of MAPK, PKA signaling pathway.
Sweroside possesses wound healing, cytoprotective, skin-whitening , anti-osteoporotic , and hepatoprotective effect. It can inhibit potent melanogenesis in melan-a cells at 300uM without cytotoxicity, also decreases tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) and TRP-2 protein production in melan a cells. It also shows insulin-mimicking effects on the regulation of Pck1 expression.
Arbutin is a tyrosinase inhibitor with an IC50 of 1.09 mM, which has gastroprotective, whitening, anti- age, anti-oxidant , anti-inflammatory, a depigmenting effects and UVB/ UVC filter. Arbutin has mutagenicity in mammalian cells after activation by human intestinal bacteria.
5,15-Diacetyl-3-benzoyllathyrol is a melanine production inhibitor, excellent in inhibiting pigment stagnation and improving the discoloration of the skin or freckles, has excellent stability.
Ginsenoside has been reported to suppress platelet aggregation and to reduce gap junction-mediated intercellular communication, also as a novel anti-skin cancer drug with anti-proliferative and anti-migration features. Ginsenoside F1 has a potential for industrial cosmetic materials, it also has inhibitory effect of elastase and tyrosinase, it significantly reduces ultraviolet-B-induced cell death by maintaining constant levels of Bcl-2 and protects HaCaT cells from apoptosis caused by ultraviolet B irradiation.