1. 8-Gingerol is one of the principal components of ginger, which is widely used in China and elsewhere as a food, spice and herb, shows immunosuppressive activity on the immune responses to ovalbumin (OVA) in mice, 8-gingerol suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and concanavalin A (ConA)-stimulated splenocyte proliferation in vitro.
2. 8-Gingerol suppresses cellular tyrosinase activity and decrease melanin content, inhibits the expression of MC1R, MITF, tyrosinase, TRP1 and TRP2, decreases intracellular RS and ROS levels in B16F10 and B16F1 cells, inhibits melanogenesis by down-regulation of MAPK, PKA signaling pathway; it could be used as an effective skin-whitening agent.
3. 8-Gingerol has inhibition of T lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine synthesis.
4. 8-Gingerol has anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.
1. Sweroside possesses strong hepatoprotective effect.
2. Sweroside is a promising osteoporosis therapeutic natural product, has anti-osteoporotic effect on the human MG-63 cells and rat osteoblasts.
3. Sweroside and swertiamarine may have wound healing activity, they also have cytoprotective effects, which may cause a synergism in terms of wound healing activity of Gentian.
4. Sweroside can inhibit potent melanogenesis in melan-a cells at 300uM without cytotoxicity, also decreases tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) and TRP-2 protein production in melan a cells, it may be an effective skin-whitening agent through the regulates the expression of MAP kinase and melanogenic enzymes.
5. Sweroside and gentiopicroside suppress Pck1 expression and induce phosphorylation of components in the insulin signalling cascade, demonstrates that they show insulin-mimicking effects on the regulation of Pck1 expression.
1. Arbutin has whitening, anti- age effects and UVB/ UVC filter by inhibiting tyrosinase and thus preventing the formation of melanin.
2. Normal skin microflora may increase the skin lightening effect of arbutin due to the antioxidant action of hydroquinone.
3. Arbutin has mutagenicity in mammalian cells after activation by human intestinal bacteria.
4. Arbutin has gastroprotective activities.
5. Arbutin is an anti-oxidant and a depigmenting agent, also has anti-inflammatory effect, it may be useful for treating the inflammatory and deleterious effects of BV2 microglial cells activation in response to LPS stimulation.
1. 5,15-Diacetyl-3-benzoyllathyrol is a melanine production inhibitor, excellent in inhibiting pigment stagnation and improving the discoloration of the skin or freckles, has excellent stability.
1. Ginsenoside F1,an enzymatically modified derivative of ginsenoside Rg1, protection from ultraviolet-B-induced apoptosis is tightly correlated with ginsenoside-F1-mediated inhibition of ultraviolet-B-induced downregulation of Bcl-2 and Brn-3a expression.
2. Ginsenoside F1 exhibited competitive inhibition of the activity of CYP3A4 with Ki values of 57.7 ± 9.6 μM and 67.8 ± 16.2 μM, respectively.
3. Ginsenoside F1 exhibited a weaker inhibition of the activity of CYP2D6.