|Source:||The barks of Ailanthus altissima|
|Biological Activity or Inhibitors:||1. Bruceine D from Brucea javanica, may have the potential to be used as a natural viricide, or a lead compound for new viricides.
2. Bruceine D inhibits the growth of three pancreatic cancer cell lines, i.e., PANC-1, SW1990 and CAPAN-1; induces cytotoxicity in Capan-2 cells via the induction of cellular apoptosis involving the mitochondrial pathway.
|Solvent:||Chloroform, Dichloromethane, Ethyl Acetate, DMSO, Acetone, etc.|
|Storage:||Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: email@example.com
|After receiving:||The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.|
|1 mg||5 mg||10 mg||20 mg||25 mg|
|1 mM||2.4366 mL||12.1832 mL||24.3665 mL||48.7329 mL||60.9162 mL|
|5 mM||0.4873 mL||2.4366 mL||4.8733 mL||9.7466 mL||12.1832 mL|
|10 mM||0.2437 mL||1.2183 mL||2.4366 mL||4.8733 mL||6.0916 mL|
|50 mM||0.0487 mL||0.2437 mL||0.4873 mL||0.9747 mL||1.2183 mL|
|100 mM||0.0244 mL||0.1218 mL||0.2437 mL||0.4873 mL||0.6092 mL|
Int J Mol Med. 2012 Jul;30(1):93-9.
|Involvement of the mitochondrial pathway in bruceine D-induced apoptosis in Capan-2 human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells.[Pubmed: 22552257]|
|Our research group has previously identified Bruceine D (BD), a quassinoid found abundantly in B. javanica, to have potent cytotoxic effect on a number of pancreatic cancer cell lines, including Panc-1, SW1990 and Capan-1 cells. In the present study, we showed that Bruceine D was also able to inhibit the growth of the Capan-2 human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line, but it exerted only modest cytotoxicity on the WRL68 human hepatocyte cell line and a human pancreatic progenitor cell line. The antiproliferative effects of Bruceine D were comparable to those exhibited by camptothecin and gemcitabine in our culture system. We found a dose-dependent decrease of the mitochondrial membrane potential in Bruceine D-treated Capan-2 cells as measured by the JC-1 assay. Bruceine D exposure was able to attenuate the expression of Bcl-2 protein in Capan-2 cells as detected by western blot analysis. In addition, the expression of both caspase 9 and caspase 3 in Bruceine D-treated Capan-2 cells was significantly accentuated. Moreover, Bruceine D was capable of inducing the fragmentation of genomic DNA in Capan-2 cells as evidenced by Hoechst staining. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that Bruceine D could increase the percentage of Capan-2 cells in the subG1 phase in a dose-related manner. An increase in the apoptosis of Capan-2 cells was also observed by Annexin V and PI staining. These results unequivocally indicate that Bruceine D induces cytotoxicity in Capan-2 cells via the induction of cellular apoptosis involving the mitochondrial pathway.|
Vet Parasitol. 2011 Apr 19;177(1-2):127-33.
|In vivo anthelmintic activity of bruceine A and bruceine D from Brucea javanica against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) in goldfish (Carassius auratus).[Pubmed: 21196080]|
|Based on this finding, the methanol extract was fractionated on silica gel column chromatography in a bioassay-guided fractionation affording two known quassinoids showing potent activity, bruceine A and Bruceine D. Both bruceine A and Bruceine D exhibited significant activity against Bruceine D. intermedius with EC(50) values of 0.49 mg l(-1) and 0.57 mg l(-1), respectively, which were more effective than the positive control, mebendazole (EC(50) value=1.25 mg l(-1)). In addition, the 48-h median lethal concentration (LC(50)) for bruceine A and Bruceine D against the host (Carassius auratus) was 10.6-fold and 9.7-fold higher than the EC(50) for Bruceine D. intermedius. These results provide evidence that the isolated compounds might be potential sources of new anti-parasitic drugs for the control of Dactylogyrus. This is the first report on an in vivo anthelmintic investigation for B. javanica against Bruceine D. intermedius.|
Pest Manag Sci. 2008 Feb;64(2):191-6.
|Antiphytoviral activity of bruceine-D from Brucea javanica seeds.[Pubmed: 17912689 ]|
|Bioassay-guided fractionation of the most active extract from the seeds led to the isolation of an antiphytoviral compound which was identified as Bruceine D by conventional spectroscopy methods. The compound exhibited significant inhibitory activity against the infection and replication of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), with IC(50) values of 13.98 and 7.13 mg L(-1) respectively. The compound also showed a strong inhibitory effect on the infectivity of potato virus Y (PVY) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Furthermore, the compound could effectively inhibit systemic TMV infection in the host tobacco plant under glasshouse conditions. CONCLUSION: The results suggested that Bruceine D from Brucea javanica may have the potential to be used as a natural viricide, or a lead compound for new viricides.|
Cancer Lett. 2009 Aug 18;281(1):42-52.
|Bruceine D induces apoptosis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line PANC-1 through the activation of p38-mitogen activated protein kinase.[Pubmed: 19286308]|
|Bruceine D (BD), a quassinoid found abundantly in B. javanica fruit, was evaluated for its anti-proliferative and apoptogenic actions. Bruceine D inhibited the growth of three pancreatic cancer cell lines, i.e., PANC-1, SW1990 and CAPAN-1, but exerted only modest cytotoxicity on non-tumorigenic Hs68 cells. Hoechst 33342 staining and Cell Death Detection ELISA(PLUS) assay revealed that Bruceine D-induced DNA fragmentation in PANC-1 cells. Moreover, subG1 phase was observed in the Bruceine D-treated cells. Western blot experiments indicated that Bruceine D exposure augmented caspase 3, 8, 9 and bak protein levels, while attenuating the expression of bcl-2. Furthermore, Bruceine D treatment promoted phosphorylation of p38-MAPK. The selective p38-MAPK inhibitor SB203580 effectively mitigated the Bruceine D-induced apoptosis in PANC-1 cells, suggesting that p38-MAPK signaling pathway was involved in the Bruceine D-induced apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. Taken together, our results provide experimental evidence to support the traditional use of B. javanica fruit in cancer treatment, and render Bruceine D a promising chemical candidate for further development into anti-pancreatic cancer agent.|