|Source:||From cochineal insects (Dactylopius spp.)|
|Biological Activity or Inhibitors:||1. Carminic acid, the well-known red dyestuff from cochineal insects (Dactylopius spp.), is a potent feeding deterrent to ants.
2. The antitumor agent carminic acid 1a does not bind to DNA but nicks it slowly, more rapidly when reduced in situ , and still more rapidly when prereduced at the quinone moiety.
3. Carminic acid is an antioxidant to protect erythrocytes and DNA against radical‐induced oxidation.
|Solvent:||Pyridine, Methanol, Ethanol, etc.|
|Storage:||Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: email@example.com
|After receiving:||The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.|
|1 mg||5 mg||10 mg||20 mg||25 mg|
|1 mM||2.0309 mL||10.1546 mL||20.3091 mL||40.6182 mL||50.7728 mL|
|5 mM||0.4062 mL||2.0309 mL||4.0618 mL||8.1236 mL||10.1546 mL|
|10 mM||0.2031 mL||1.0155 mL||2.0309 mL||4.0618 mL||5.0773 mL|
|50 mM||0.0406 mL||0.2031 mL||0.4062 mL||0.8124 mL||1.0155 mL|
|100 mM||0.0203 mL||0.1015 mL||0.2031 mL||0.4062 mL||0.5077 mL|
Science. 1980 May 30;208(4447):1039-42.
|Red cochineal dye (carminic acid): Its role in nature.[Pubmed: 17779027]|
|Carminic acid, the well-known red dyestuff from cochineal insects (Dactylopius spp.), is a potent feeding deterrent to ants. This deterrency may be indicative of the natural function of the compound, which may have evolved in cochineals as a chemical weapon against predation. The behavior of an unusual predator is described--the carnivorous caterpillar of a pyralid moth (Laetilia coccidivora)--which is undeterred by Carminic acid and feeds on cochineals. The animal has the remarkable habit of utilizing the ingested Carminic acid for defensive purposes of its own.|
Bioorganic Chemistry, 1979 , 8 (1) :17-24.
|Reactions of the antitumor agent carminic acid and derivatives with DNA[Reference: WebLink]|
|The antitumor agent Carminic acid 1a does not bind to DNA but nicks it slowly, more rapidly when reduced in situ, and still more rapidly when prereduced at the quinone moiety. The nicking process requires oxygen and is selectively inhibited by (i) superoxide dismutase, (ii) catalase, and (iii) free radical scavengers indicating the involvement of , and OH., respectively. The fact that daunorubicin and adriamycin produce more extensive DNA strand scission than Carminic acid under comparable conditions of prereduction and on a molar basis is largely attributed to the assistance of intercalative binding afforded in the case of the anthracyclines.|
Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry, 2009 , 22 (9) :883-7.
|Carminic acid: An antioxidant to protect erythrocytes and DNA against radical-induced oxidation[Reference: WebLink]|
|This work explored the antioxidant effect of Carminic acid (CarOH) on the oxidation of DNA and erythrocytes induced by 2,2′-azobis(2-amidinopropane hydrochloride) (AAPH). The half concentrations (IC50) of CarOH to scavenge radicals were measured by reacting with 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) radical cation (ABTS+•) and 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The values of IC50 were 8.0 and 26.0 μM when CarOH reacted with ABTS+• and DPPH, respectively. CarOH was able to protect DNA against AAPH-induced oxidative damage by decreasing the formation rate of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). In addition, CarOH protected human erythrocytes against AAPH-induced hemolysis concentration dependently, during which one molecule of CarOH can trap almost three radicals. Moreover, quantum calculation revealed that the hydroxyl group at 6-position played major role in trapping radicals.|